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Hypomorphic RAG deficiency: impact of disease burden on survival and thymic recovery argues for early diagnosis and HSCT

Schuetz, Catharina; Gerke, Julia; Ege, Markus Johannes; Walter, Jolan Eszter; Kusters, Maaike; Worth, Austen JJ; Kanakry, Jennifer A; ... Neven, Bénédicte; + view all (2023) Hypomorphic RAG deficiency: impact of disease burden on survival and thymic recovery argues for early diagnosis and HSCT. Blood , 141 (7) pp. 713-724. 10.1182/blood.2022017667. Green open access

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Abstract

Patients with hypomorphic mutations in RAG1 and RAG2 genes present as either Omenn syndrome or atypical combined immunodeficiency (CID) with a wide phenotypic range. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is potentially curative, but data are scarce. We report on a worldwide cohort of 60 patients with hypomorphic RAG variants who underwent HSCT, 78% of whom experienced infections (29% active at HSCT), 72% autoimmunity and 18% granulomas pre-transplant. These complications were frequently associated with organ damage. Eight individuals (13%) were diagnosed by newborn screening or family history. HSCT was performed at a median of 3.4 years (range 0.3 - 42.9 years) from matched unrelated donors, matched sibling or matched family donors or mismatched donors (MMFD) in 48%, 22% and 30% of the patients, respectively. Grafts were T-cell depleted in 15 cases (25%). Overall survival at 1 and 4 years was 77.5 and 67.5% (median follow-up 39 months). Infection was the main cause of death. In univariable analysis, active infection, organ damage pre-HSCT, T-cell depletion of the graft and transplant from a MMFD were predictive of worse outcome, while organ damage and T-cell depletion remained significant in multivariable analysis (HR=6.01, HR=8.46, respectively). All patients diagnosed by newborn screening or family history survived. Cumulative incidences (CI) of acute and chronic GvHD were 35% and 22% respectively. CI of new-onset autoimmunity was 15%. Immune reconstitution, particularly recovery of naïve CD4+ T-cells was faster and more robust in patients transplanted before 3.5 years and without organ damage. These findings support the indication for early transplantation.

Type: Article
Title: Hypomorphic RAG deficiency: impact of disease burden on survival and thymic recovery argues for early diagnosis and HSCT
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1182/blood.2022017667
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1182/blood.2022017667
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Infection and Immunity
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10158338
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