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High-Resolution Anoscopy Surveillance After Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Detection and Treatment May Influence Local Recurrence

Cappello, Carmelina; Cuming, Tamzin; Bowring, Julie; Rosenthal, Adam N; Chindawi, Noreen; Nathan, Mayura; (2020) High-Resolution Anoscopy Surveillance After Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Detection and Treatment May Influence Local Recurrence. Diseases of the Colon & Rectum , 63 (10) pp. 1363-1371. 10.1097/DCR.0000000000001750. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Local recurrence is a significant risk after anal squamous cell carcinoma. OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to examine the occurrence of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions and local recurrence after anal cancer at surveillance with high-resolution anoscopy. DESIGN: This is a retrospective observational study. SETTING: This study was conducted at an anogenital neoplasia referral center. PATIENTS: There were 76 anal/perianal cancers from 1998 to 2018. Sixty-three patients were eligible and 3 were excluded, for a total of 60 patients; 35 of 60 (58%) patients were male. INTERVENTION: High-resolution anoscopy after chemoradiation or excision only for anal squamous cell carcinoma was performed. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcomes measured were local recurrence and high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion detection rates. RESULTS: Sixty patients, 27% HIV positive, underwent surveillance over a median 42 (range 7-240) months of follow-up. Seven had had a prior local recurrence at study entry so were analyzed separately. Thirty of 53 underwent chemoradiation (57%) and 23 of 53 underwent excision alone (43%); 33 had perianal cancer and 20 had anal cancer. Ten of 30 of the chemoradiation group had had stage 1 (33%) disease in comparison with 22 of 23 of the excision only group (96%, p < 0.001). OUTCOMES: High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were detected in 4 of 30 (13%) patients after chemoradiation and in 17 of 23 (74%) patients after excision only (p < 0.001). Twenty of 21 (95%) high-grade lesions were treated with ablation. Six of 7 (86%) patients with prior local recurrence had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions over a median of 21 months follow-up. One local recurrence (T1N0M0) occurred during surveillance after primary chemoradiation (0.56/1000 person-months), none occurred after excision only, and 2 of 7 with prior local recurrence developed further local recurrence (6.86/1000 person-months). All 3 local recurrences occurred after treatment of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. There were no metastases, abdominoperineal excisions, or deaths from anal squamous cell carcinoma. LIMITATIONS: Retrospective data were used for this study. CONCLUSIONS: High-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions after anal squamous cell carcinoma are more common after excision only than after chemoradiation. Local recurrence is low in this high-resolution anoscopy surveillance group in which high-grade squamous intraepithelial disease was ablated. Excision of small perianal cancers appears safe; however, a subset of patients is at excess risk.

Type: Article
Title: High-Resolution Anoscopy Surveillance After Anal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesion Detection and Treatment May Influence Local Recurrence
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1097/DCR.0000000000001750
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1097/DCR.0000000000001750
Language: English
Additional information: © 2022 The American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL EGA Institute for Womens Health > Womens Cancer
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL EGA Institute for Womens Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10158317
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