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Prevalence of pneumonia and malnutrition among children in Jigawa state, Nigeria: a community-based clinical screening study

King, Carina; Siddle, Morgan; Adams, Osebi; Ahmar, Samy; Ahmed, Tahlil; Bakare, Ayobami Adebayo; Bakare, Damola; ... Falade, Adegoke Gbadegesin; + view all (2022) Prevalence of pneumonia and malnutrition among children in Jigawa state, Nigeria: a community-based clinical screening study. BMJ Paediatrics Open , 6 (1) , Article e001640. 10.1136/bmjpo-2022-001640. Green open access

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Abstract

Objective: To estimate the point prevalence of pneumonia and malnutrition and explore associations with household socioeconomic factors. / Design: Community-based cross-sectional study conducted in January–June 2021 among a random sample of households across all villages in the study area. / Setting: Kiyawa Local Government Area, Jigawa state, Nigeria. / Participants: Children aged 0–59 months who were permanent residents in Kiyawa and present at home at the time of the survey. / Main outcome measures: Pneumonia (non-severe and severe) defined using WHO criteria (2014 revision) in children aged 0–59 months. Malnutrition (moderate and severe) defined using mid-upper arm circumference in children aged 6–59 months. / Results: 9171 children were assessed, with a mean age of 24.8 months (SD=15.8); 48.7% were girls. Overall pneumonia (severe or non-severe) point prevalence was 1.3% (n=121/9171); 0.6% (n=55/9171) had severe pneumonia. Using an alternate definition that did not rely on caregiver-reported cough/difficult breathing revealed higher pneumonia prevalence (n=258, 2.8%, 0.6% severe, 2.2% non-severe). Access to any toilet facility was associated with lower odds of pneumonia (aOR: 0.56; 95% CI: 0.31 to 1.01). The prevalence of malnutrition (moderate or severe) was 15.6% (n=1239/7954) with 4.1% (n=329/7954) were severely malnourished. Being older (aOR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.17 to 0.27), male (aOR: 0.77; 95% CI: 0.66 to 0.91) and having head of compound a business owner or professional (vs subsistence farmer, aOR 0.71; 95% CI: 0.56 to 0.90) were associated with lower odds of malnutrition. / Conclusions: In this large, representative community-based survey, there was a considerable pneumonia and malnutrition morbidity burden. We noted challenges in the diagnosis of Integrated Management of Childhood Illness-defined pneumonia in this context.

Type: Article
Title: Prevalence of pneumonia and malnutrition among children in Jigawa state, Nigeria: a community-based clinical screening study
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1136/bmjpo-2022-001640
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjpo-2022-001640
Language: English
Additional information: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/ This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10157655
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