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Premixed Calcium Silicate-Based Root Canal Sealer Reinforced with Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles to Improve Biological Properties

Jung, Min-Kyung; Park, So-Chung; Kim, Yu-Jin; Park, Jong-Tae; Knowles, Jonathan C; Park, Jeong-Hui; Dashnyam, Khandmaa; ... Lee, Jung-Hwan; + view all (2022) Premixed Calcium Silicate-Based Root Canal Sealer Reinforced with Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles to Improve Biological Properties. Pharmaceutics , 14 (9) , Article 1903. 10.3390/pharmaceutics14091903. Green open access

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Abstract

Recently, bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGns) have been acknowledged for their ability to promote interactions with the periapical tissue and enhance tissue regeneration by releasing therapeutic ions. However, there have been no studies on calcium silicate sealers with bioactive glass nanoparticle (BGn) additives. In the present study, a premixed calcium silicate root canal sealer reinforced with BGn (pre-mixed-RCS@BGn) was developed and its physicochemical features and biological effects were analyzed. Three specimens were in the trial: 0%, 0.5%, and 1% bioactive glass nanoparticles (BGns) were gradually added to the premixed type of calcium silicate-based sealer (pre-mixed-RCS). To elucidate the surface properties, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and energy-dispersive spectroscopy were used and flowability, setting time, solubility, and radiopacity were analyzed to evaluate the physical properties. Chemical properties were investigated by water contact angle, pH change, and ion release measurements. The antibacterial effects of the bioactive set sealers were tested with Enterococcus faecalis and the viability of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) with this biomaterial was examined. In addition, osteogenic differentiation was highly stimulated, which was confirmed by ALP (Alkaline phosphatase) activity and the ARS (Alizarin red S) staining of hMSCs. The pre-mixed-RCS@BGn satisfied the ISO standards for root canal sealers and maintained antimicrobial activity. Moreover, pre-mixed-RCS@BGn with more BGns turned out to have less cytotoxicity than pre-mixed-RCS without BGns while promoting osteogenic differentiation, mainly due to calcium and silicon ion release. Our results suggest that BGns enhance the biological properties of this calcium silicate-based sealer and that the newly introduced pre-mixed-RCS@BGn has the capability to be applied in dental procedures as a root canal sealer. Further studies focusing more on the biocompatibility of pre-mixed-RCS@BGn should be performed to investigate in vivo systems, including pulp tissue.

Type: Article
Title: Premixed Calcium Silicate-Based Root Canal Sealer Reinforced with Bioactive Glass Nanoparticles to Improve Biological Properties
Location: Switzerland
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics14091903
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics14091903
Language: English
Additional information: This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: Enterococcus faecalis, bioactive glass nanoparticle, biological properties, calcium silicate sealer, mesenchymal stem cells, osteogenic differentiation, physicochemical properties
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Eastman Dental Institute > Biomaterials and Tissue Eng
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Eastman Dental Institute
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10156988
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