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Head-to-head comparison of 10 plasma phospho-tau assays in prodromal Alzheimer's disease

Janelidze, Shorena; Bali, Divya; Ashton, Nicholas J; Barthélemy, Nicolas R; Vanbrabant, Jeroen; Stoops, Erik; Vanmechelen, Eugeen; ... Hansson, Oskar; + view all (2022) Head-to-head comparison of 10 plasma phospho-tau assays in prodromal Alzheimer's disease. Brain , Article awac333. 10.1093/brain/awac333. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

Plasma phospho-tau (p-tau) species have emerged as the most promising blood-based biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease. Here, we performed a head-to-head comparison of p-tau181, p-tau217 and p-tau231 measured using 10 assays to detect abnormal brain amyloid-β status and predict future progression to Alzheimer's dementia. The study included 135 patients with baseline diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment (mean age 72.4 years; 60.7% women) who were followed for an average of 4.9 years. Seventy-one participants had abnormal Aβ-status (i.e., abnormal CSF Aβ42/40) at baseline; and 45 of these Aβ-positive participants progressed to Alzheimer's dementia during follow-up. P-tau concentrations were determined in baseline plasma and CSF. P-tau217 and p-tau181 were both measured using immunoassays developed by Lilly Research Laboratories (Lilly) and mass spectrometry assays developed at Washington University (WashU). P-tau217 was also analysed using Simoa immunoassay developed by Janssen Research and Development (Janss). P-tau181 was measured using Simoa immunoassay from ADxNeurosciences (ADx), Lumipulse immunoassay from Fujirebio (Fuji) and Splex immunoassay from Mesoscale Discovery (Splex). Both p-tau181 and p-tau231 were quantified using Simoa immunoassay developed at the University of Gothenburg (UGOT). We found that the mass spectrometry-based p-tau217 (p-tau217WashU) exhibited significantly better performance than all other plasma p-tau biomarkers when detecting abnormal Aβ status (AUC = 0.947; pdiff < 0.015) or progression to Alzheimer's dementia (AUC = 0.932; pdiff < 0.027). Among immunoassays, p-tau217Lilly had the highest AUCs (0.886-0.889), which was not significantly different from the AUCs of p-tau217Janss, p-tau181ADx and p-tau181WashU (AUCrange, 0.835-0.872; pdiff > 0.09), but higher compared with AUC of p-tau231UGOT, p-tau181Lilly, p-tau181UGOT, p-tau181Fuji, and p-tau181Splex (AUCrange, 0.642-0.813; pdiff ≤0.029). Correlations between plasma and CSF values were strongest for p-tau217WashU (R = 0.891) followed by p-tau217Lilly (R = 0.755; pdiff = 0.003 vs p-tau217WashU) and weak to moderate for the rest of the p-tau biomarkers (Rrange, 0.320-0.669). In conclusion, the findings suggest that among all tested plasma p-tau assays, mass spectrometry-based measures of p-tau217 perform best when identifying mild cognitive impairment patients with abnormal brain Aβ or those who will subsequently progress to Alzheimer's dementia. Several other assays (p-tau217Lilly, p-tau217Janss, p-tau181ADx, and p-tau181WashU) showed relatively high and consistent accuracy across both outcomes. The results further indicate that the highest performing assays have performance metrics that rival the gold standards of Aβ-PET and CSF. If further validated, our findings will have significant impacts in diagnosis, screening and treatment for Alzheimer's dementia in the future.

Type: Article
Title: Head-to-head comparison of 10 plasma phospho-tau assays in prodromal Alzheimer's disease
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1093/brain/awac333
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awac333
Language: English
Additional information: © The Author(s) 2022. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, amyloid-β, blood p-tau, dementia
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Neurodegenerative Diseases
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10156033
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