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Waning of antibody levels induced by a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, using a 3 + 0 schedule, within the first year of life among children younger than 5 years in Blantyre, Malawi: an observational, population-level, serosurveillance study

Swarthout, Todd D; Henrion, Marc YR; Thindwa, Deus; Meiring, James E; Mbewe, Maurice; Kalizang'Oma, Akuzike; Brown, Comfort; ... Heyderman, Robert S; + view all (2022) Waning of antibody levels induced by a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, using a 3 + 0 schedule, within the first year of life among children younger than 5 years in Blantyre, Malawi: an observational, population-level, serosurveillance study. Lancet Infectious Diseases 10.1016/S1473-3099(22)00438-8. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) induce serotype-specific IgG antibodies, effectively reducing vaccine-serotype carriage and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). IgG production wanes approximately 1 month after vaccination in absence of serotype-specific exposure. With uncertainty surrrounding correlate of protection (CoP) estimates and with persistent vaccine-serotype carriage and vaccine-serotype IPD after PCV13 introduction, we aimed to profile population-level immunogenicity among children younger than 5 years in Blantyre, Malawi. METHODS: For this serosurveillance study, we used a random subset of samples from a prospective population-based serosurvey in Blantyre, Malawi, done between Dec 16, 2016, and June 27, 2018. Sample selection was based on age category optimisation among children younger than 5 years, adequate sample volume, and available budget. We measured serotype-specific IgGs against the 13 vaccine serotypes (1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F, and 23F) and two non-vaccine serotypes (12F and 33F), as well as IgGs against three pneumococcal proteins (PsaA, NanA, and Ply), using ELISA and a direct-binding electrochemiluminescence-based multiplex assay. We estimated population-level, serotype-specific immunogenicity profiles using a linear spline regression model. Analyses included samples stratified to 20 3-month age strata (eg, age <3 months to 57-59 months). FINDINGS: We evaluated 638 plasma samples: 556 primary samples and 82 unique secondary samples (each linked to one primary sample). Immunogenicity profiles revealed a consistent pattern among vaccine serotypes except serotype 3: a vaccine-induced IgG peak followed by waning to a nadir and subsequent increase in titre. For serotype 3, we observed no apparent vaccine-induced increase. Heterogeneity in parameters included age range at post-vaccination nadir (from 11·2 months [19A] to 27·3 months [7F]). The age at peak IgG titre ranged from 2·69 months (5) to 6·64 months (14). Titres dropped below CoPs against IPD among nine vaccine serotypes (1, 3, 4, 5, 6B, 7F, 9V, 18C, and 23F) and below CoPs against carriage for ten vaccine serotypes (1, 4, 5, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F, and 23F). Increasing antibody concentrations among older children and seroincident events were consistent with ongoing vaccine-serotype exposure. INTERPRETATION: A 3 + 0 PCV13 schedule with high uptake has not led to sustained population-level antibody immunity beyond the first year of life. Indeed, post-vaccine antibody concentrations dropped below putative CoPs for several vaccine serotypes, potentially contributing to persistent vaccine-serotype carriage and residual vaccine-serotype IPD in Malawi and other similar settings. Policy decisions should consider alternative vaccine strategies, including a booster dose, to achieve sustained vaccine-induced antibody titres, and thus control. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Wellcome UK, and National Institute for Health and Care Research.

Type: Article
Title: Waning of antibody levels induced by a 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, using a 3 + 0 schedule, within the first year of life among children younger than 5 years in Blantyre, Malawi: an observational, population-level, serosurveillance study
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/S1473-3099(22)00438-8
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(22)00438-8
Language: English
Additional information: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third-party material in this article are included in the Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Infection and Immunity
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10155111
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