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A genetic model for central chondrosarcoma evolution correlates with patient outcome

Cross, William; Lyskjær, Iben; Lesluyes, Tom; Hargreaves, Steven; Strobl, Anna-Christina; Davies, Christopher; Waise, Sara; ... Flanagan, Adrienne M; + view all (2022) A genetic model for central chondrosarcoma evolution correlates with patient outcome. Genome Medicine , 14 (1) , Article 99. 10.1186/s13073-022-01084-0. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Central conventional chondrosarcoma (CS) is the most common subtype of primary malignant bone tumour in adults. Treatment options are usually limited to surgery, and prognosis is challenging. These tumours are characterised by the presence and absence of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations, and recently, TERT promoter alterations have been reported in around 20% of cases. The effect of these mutations on clinical outcome remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine if prognostic accuracy can be improved by the addition of genomic data, and specifically by examination of IDH1, IDH2, and TERT mutations. METHODS: In this study, we combined both archival samples and data sourced from the Genomics England 100,000 Genomes Project (n = 356). Mutations in IDH1, IDH2, and TERT were profiled using digital droplet PCR (n = 346), whole genome sequencing (n=68), or both (n = 64). Complex events and other genetic features were also examined, along with methylation array data (n = 84). We correlated clinical features and patient outcomes with our genetic findings. RESULTS: IDH2-mutant tumours occur in older patients and commonly present with high-grade or dedifferentiated disease. Notably, TERT mutations occur most frequently in IDH2-mutant tumours, although have no effect on survival in this group. In contrast, TERT mutations are rarer in IDH1-mutant tumours, yet they are associated with a less favourable outcome in this group. We also found that methylation profiles distinguish IDH1- from IDH2-mutant tumours. IDH wild-type tumours rarely exhibit TERT mutations and tend to be diagnosed in a younger population than those with tumours harbouring IDH1 and IDH2 mutations. A major genetic feature of this group is haploidisation and subsequent genome doubling. These tumours evolve less frequently to dedifferentiated disease and therefore constitute a lower risk group. CONCLUSIONS: Tumours with IDH1 or IDH2 mutations or those that are IDHwt have significantly different genetic pathways and outcomes in relation to TERT mutation. Diagnostic testing for IDH1, IDH2, and TERT mutations could therefore help to guide clinical monitoring and prognostication.

Type: Article
Title: A genetic model for central chondrosarcoma evolution correlates with patient outcome
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1186/s13073-022-01084-0
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1186/s13073-022-01084-0
Language: English
Additional information: Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Keywords: Cancer evolution, Chondrosarcoma, Genetics, Genomics, IDH1, IDH2, Sarcoma, TERT
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Cancer Institute > Research Department of Pathology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Cancer Institute
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10155101
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