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Changing Incidence of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Infants Less Than 90 Days of Age Before and After Introduction of the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Blantyre, Malawi: A 14-Year Hospital Based Surveillance Study

Koenraads, Marianne; Swarthout, Todd D; Bar-Zeev, Naor; Brown, Comfort; Msefula, Jacquline; Denis, Brigitte; Dube, Queen; ... French, Neil; + view all (2022) Changing Incidence of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Infants Less Than 90 Days of Age Before and After Introduction of the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Blantyre, Malawi: A 14-Year Hospital Based Surveillance Study. The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal , 41 (9) pp. 764-768. 10.1097/INF.0000000000003606. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in young infants is uncommon but associated with high morbidity and mortality. Accurate data on the burden of IPD in young infants in low-income countries are lacking. We examined the burden of IPD in infants <90 days old in Blantyre, Malawi over a 14-year period and evaluated the indirect impact of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) on vaccine-serotype IPD (VT-IPD) in this population. METHODS: We conducted laboratory-based prospective IPD surveillance in infants <90 days of age admitted to Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in Blantyre between 2005 and 2018, including 7 years pre-PCV13 and 7 years post-PCV13 introduction. IPD was defined as Streptococcus pneumoniae identified by culture from blood or cerebrospinal fluid. Serotypes were determined by multiplex polymerase chain reaction and latex agglutination testing. RESULTS: We identified 130 cases of culture-confirmed IPD in infants <90 days old between 2005 and 2018. Total IPD incidence was declining before PCV13 introduction. The mean incidence of IPD was significantly lower in the post-PCV13 era. Serotypes 5 (27.8%) and 1 (15.6%) were most prevalent. Even after PCV13 introduction, VTs remained the primary cause of IPD, with serotype 5 accounting for 17.4% and serotype 1 for 13.0% of cases in young infants. CONCLUSION: Vaccine serotypes 1 and 5 were the main cause of IPD in neonates and young infants, both before and after PCV13 introduction. This suggests incomplete indirect protection with persisting VT carriage across the population despite vaccination in this setting. Alternative vaccine schedules and other vaccine introduction approaches need to be considered to protect this vulnerable population.

Type: Article
Title: Changing Incidence of Invasive Pneumococcal Disease in Infants Less Than 90 Days of Age Before and After Introduction of the 13-Valent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine in Blantyre, Malawi: A 14-Year Hospital Based Surveillance Study
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000003606
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000003606
Language: English
Additional information: © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Keywords: invasive pneumococcal disease, infant, pneumococcal conjugate vaccine
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Infection and Immunity
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10154344
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