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T2 and T2⁎ mapping and weighted imaging in cardiac MRI

Topriceanu, CC; Pierce, I; Moon, JC; Captur, G; (2022) T2 and T2⁎ mapping and weighted imaging in cardiac MRI. Magnetic Resonance Imaging , 93 pp. 15-32. 10.1016/j.mri.2022.07.012. Green open access

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Abstract

Cardiac imaging is progressing from simple imaging of heart structure and function to techniques visualizing and measuring underlying tissue biological changes that can potentially define disease and therapeutic options. These techniques exploit underlying tissue magnetic relaxation times: T1, T2 and T2*. Initial weighting methods showed myocardial heterogeneity, detecting regional disease. Current methods are now fully quantitative generating intuitive color maps that do not only expose regionality, but also diffuse changes – meaning that between-scan comparisons can be made to define disease (compared to normal) and to monitor interval change (compared to old scans). T1 is now familiar and used clinically in multiple scenarios, yet some technical challenges remain. T2 is elevated with increased tissue water – edema. Should there also be blood troponin elevation, this edema likely reflects inflammation, a key biological process. T2* falls in the presence of magnetic/paramagnetic materials – practically, this means it measures tissue iron, either after myocardial hemorrhage or in myocardial iron overload. This review discusses how T2 and T2⁎ imaging work (underlying physics, innovations, dependencies, performance), current and emerging use cases, quality assurance processes for global delivery and future research directions.

Type: Article
Title: T2 and T2⁎ mapping and weighted imaging in cardiac MRI
Location: Netherlands
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.mri.2022.07.012
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mri.2022.07.012
Language: English
Additional information: © 2022 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/)
Keywords: Clinical applications, Future innovations, Physics, T(2) mapping, T(2)(⁎) quantification without mapping, T(2)-weighted imaging, T2* mapping
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Clinical Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Population Science and Experimental Medicine > MRC Unit for Lifelong Hlth and Ageing
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Population Science and Experimental Medicine
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10154006
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