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Advances in the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, clinical management and prevention of coronavirus disease 2019

Hui, David SC; Zumla, Alimuddin; (2022) Advances in the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, clinical management and prevention of coronavirus disease 2019. Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine , 28 (3) pp. 166-173. 10.1097/MCP.0000000000000875.

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Abstract

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current article reviews the latest information on the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnostics, clinical management and prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). RECENT FINDINGS: Atypical pneumonia due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 emerged in December 2019 in a market in Wuhan, China and rapidly evolved into a pandemic in March 2020. Viral loads of patients with COVID-19 peak in the first week of illness around day 2-4 and hence there is very high-transmission potential causing community outbreaks. Asymptomatic and presymptomatic transmission is a hallmark of COVID-19. Several variants of concern (VOC) have emerged over the last 2 years and Omicron is the predominant variant in many countries. PCR is the standard diagnostic test while rapid antigen test is a useful supplementary test. Serology tests provide indirect evidence of infection 1 -2 weeks after the onset of symptoms. Molnupiravir and nirmatrelvir are oral antiviral agents that may reduce the risk of hospitalization and deaths if administered early to high-risk subjects. Remdesivir, baricitinib, anti-IL-6 tocilizumab and dexamethasone are frequently used for treatment of patients with respiratory failure. SUMMARY: COVID-19 pandemic progresses relentlessly with substantial morbidity and mortality especially in unvaccinated subjects. Mass COVID-19 vaccinations are the most important measure for control of the COVID-19 pandemic.

Type: Article
Title: Advances in the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, clinical management and prevention of coronavirus disease 2019
Location: United States
DOI: 10.1097/MCP.0000000000000875
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.1097/MCP.0000000000000875
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: Clinical features, coronavirus disease 2019, diagnostics, epidemiology, management, prevention
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Infection and Immunity
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10152904
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