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High burden of childhood tuberculosis in migrants: a retrospective cohort study from the Thailand–Myanmar border

Carroll, Amy; Maung, Banyar Maung; Htun, Win Pa Pa; Watthanaworawit, Wanitda; Vincenti-Delmas, Michele; Smith, Colette; Sonnenberg, Pam; (2022) High burden of childhood tuberculosis in migrants: a retrospective cohort study from the Thailand–Myanmar border. BMC Infectious Diseases , 22 , Article 608. 10.1186/s12879-022-07569-y. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children but epidemiological data are scarce, particularly for hard-to-reach populations. We aimed to identify the risk factors for unsuccessful outcome and TB mortality in migrant children at a supportive residential TB programme on the Thailand-Myanmar border. METHODS: We conducted retrospective analysis of routine programmatic data for children (aged ≤ 15 years old) with TB diagnosed either clinically or bacteriologically between 2013 and 2018. Treatment outcomes were described and risk factors for unsuccessful outcome and death were identified using multivariable logistic regression. RESULTS: Childhood TB accounted for a high proportion of all TB diagnoses at this TB programme (398/2304; 17.3%). Bacteriological testing was done on a quarter (24.9%) of the cohort and most children were diagnosed on clinical grounds (94.0%). Among those enrolled on treatment (n = 367), 90.5% completed treatment successfully. Unsuccessful treatment outcomes occurred in 42/398 (10.6%) children, comprising 26 (6.5%) lost to follow-up, one (0.3%) treatment failure and 15 (3.8%) deaths. In multivariable analysis, extra-pulmonary TB [adjusted OR (aOR) 3.56 (95% CI 1.12-10.98)], bacteriologically confirmed TB [aOR 6.07 (1.68-21.92)] and unknown HIV status [aOR 42.29 (10.00-178.78)] were independent risk factors for unsuccessful outcome. HIV-positive status [aOR 5.95 (1.67-21.22)] and bacteriological confirmation [aOR 9.31 (1.97-44.03)] were risk factors for death in the secondary analysis. CONCLUSIONS: Children bear a substantial burden of TB disease within this migrant population. Treatment success rate exceeded the WHO End TB target of 90%, suggesting that similar vulnerable populations could benefit from the enhanced social support offered by this TB programme, but better child-friendly diagnostics are needed to improve the quality of diagnoses.

Type: Article
Title: High burden of childhood tuberculosis in migrants: a retrospective cohort study from the Thailand–Myanmar border
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1186/s12879-022-07569-y
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12879-022-07569-y
Language: English
Additional information: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Keywords: Childhood, Tuberculosis, Migrant, Thailand-Myanmar border
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health > Infection and Population Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10152833
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