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Neurological and psychiatric presentations associated with human monkeypox virus infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Badenoch, James B; Conti, Isabella; Rengasamy, Emma R; Watson, Cameron J; Butler, Matt; Hussain, Zain; Rooney, Alasdair G; ... Rogers, Jonathan P; + view all (2022) Neurological and psychiatric presentations associated with human monkeypox virus infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory: Cold Spring Harbor (NY), USA. Green open access

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Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Neuropsychiatric presentations of monkeypox (MPX) infection have not been well characterised, Despite evidence of nervous system involvement associated with two related Orthopoxviruses, in the case of smallpox infection (with the variola virus) and smallpox vaccination (which contains live vaccinia virus). In this systematic review and meta-analysis, we aim to determine the prevalence and describe the spectrum of neurological and psychiatric presentations of MPX. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, AMED and pre-print server (MedRxiv) searched up to 31/05/2022. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR STUDY SELECTION AND ANALYSIS: Any study design of humans infected with MPX that reported neurological or psychiatric presentation. Studies which included more than ten individuals, and symptoms that were reported in a minimum of two separate studies were eligible for meta-analysis. DATA SYNTHESIS: Results were pooled with random-effects meta-analysis to calculate generalised linear mixed models and corresponding 95% confidence intervals for each prevalence outcome. Heterogeneity was measured with the I2 statistic. All included studies are summarised through a narrative synthesis. Risk of bias was assessed with the Newcastle Ottawa Scale and the Joanna Briggs Institute quality assessment tool. RESULTS: From 1,702 unique studies, we extracted data on 19 eligible studies (1,512 participants, 1,031 with confirmed infection using CDC criteria or PCR testing) most of which were cohort studies and case series with no controlled populations. Study quality was generally moderate. Six clinical features were eligible for meta-analysis, of which the most prevalent were myalgia in 55.5% [95%CI 12.1-91.9%], headache 53.8% [30.6-75.4%], fatigue 36.2% [2.0-94.0%], seizure 2.7% [0.6-10.2%], confusion 2.4% [1.1-5.2%] and encephalitis 2.0% [0.5-8.2%]. Heterogeneity significantly varied across clinical features (I2=0%-98.7%). Other reported presentations not eligible for meta-analysis included sensory-perceptual disturbance (altered vision, dizziness, and photophobia) and psychiatric symptoms (anxiety and depression). CONCLUSIONS: There is preliminary evidence for a range of neurological and psychiatric presentations of MPX, ranging from commonly reported and nonspecific neurological symptoms (myalgia and headache) to rarer but more severe neurological complications, such as encephalitis and seizures. There is less evidence regarding the psychiatric sequelae of MPX, and although there are multiple reports of anxiety and depression the prevalence of these symptoms is unknown. MPX-related nervous system presentations may warrant surveillance within the current MPX outbreak, with prospective longitudinal studies evaluating the mid to long-term sequelae of the virus. Robust methods to evaluate the potential causality of MPX with these clinical features are required at an individual and epidemiological level.

Type: Working / discussion paper
Title: Neurological and psychiatric presentations associated with human monkeypox virus infection: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1101/2022.07.03.22277069
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1101/2022.07.03.22277069
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the version of record. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Division of Psychiatry
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Infection and Immunity
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Department of Neuromuscular Diseases
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10151772
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