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Controlled synthesis of SPION@SiO₂ nanoparticles using design of experiments

Harman, Clarissa LG; Mac Fhionnlaoich, Niamh; King, Aaron M; Manning, Joseph RH; Lin, Wu; Scholes, Peter; Guldin, Stefan; (2022) Controlled synthesis of SPION@SiO₂ nanoparticles using design of experiments. Materials Advances , 14 (3) pp. 6007-6018. 10.1039/d2ma00369d. Green open access

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Abstract

The synthesis of single-core superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) coated with a silica shell of controlled thickness remains a challenge, due to the dependence on a multitude of experimental variables. Herein, we utilise design of experiment (DoE) to study the formation of SPION@SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) via reverse microemulsion. Using a 33 full factorial design, the influence of reactant concentration of tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) and ammonium hydroxide (NH4OH), as well as the number of fractionated additions of TEOS on the silica shell was investigated with the aim of minimising polydispersity and increasing the population of SPION@SiO2 NPs formed. This investigation facilitated a reproducible and controlled approach for the high yield synthesis of SPION@SiO2 NPs with uniform silica shell thickness. Application of a multiple linear regression analysis established a relationship between the applied experimental variables and the resulting silica shell thickness. These experimental variables were similarly found to dictate the monodispersity of the SPION@SiO2 NPs formed. The overall population of single-core@shell particles was dependent on the interaction between the number of moles of TEOS and NH4OH, with no influence from the number of fractionated additions of TEOS. This work demonstrates the complexity of the preparative method and produces an accessible and flexible synthetic model to achieve monodisperse SPION@SiO2 NPs with controllable shell thickness.

Type: Article
Title: Controlled synthesis of SPION@SiO₂ nanoparticles using design of experiments
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1039/d2ma00369d
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1039/d2ma00369d
Language: English
Additional information: © 2022 The Author(s). Published by the Royal Society of Chemistry. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences > Dept of Chemistry
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Chemical Engineering
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10151197
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