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Rare pathogenic variants in WNK3 cause X-linked intellectual disability

Küry, S; Zhang, J; Besnard, T; Caro-Llopis, A; Zeng, X; Robert, SM; Josiah, SS; ... Isidor, B; + view all (2022) Rare pathogenic variants in WNK3 cause X-linked intellectual disability. Genetics in Medicine , 24 (9) pp. 1941-1951. 10.1016/j.gim.2022.05.009.

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Abstract

Purpose: WNK3 kinase (PRKWNK3) has been implicated in the development and function of the brain via its regulation of the cation-chloride cotransporters, but the role of WNK3 in human development is unknown. Method: We ascertained exome or genome sequences of individuals with rare familial or sporadic forms of intellectual disability (ID). Results: We identified a total of 6 different maternally-inherited, hemizygous, 3 loss-of-function or 3 pathogenic missense variants (p.Pro204Arg, p.Leu300Ser, p.Glu607Val) in WNK3 in 14 male individuals from 6 unrelated families. Affected individuals had ID with variable presence of epilepsy and structural brain defects. WNK3 variants cosegregated with the disease in 3 different families with multiple affected individuals. This included 1 large family previously diagnosed with X-linked Prieto syndrome. WNK3 pathogenic missense variants localize to the catalytic domain and impede the inhibitory phosphorylation of the neuronal-specific chloride cotransporter KCC2 at threonine 1007, a site critically regulated during the development of synaptic inhibition. Conclusion: Pathogenic WNK3 variants cause a rare form of human X-linked ID with variable epilepsy and structural brain abnormalities and implicate impaired phospho-regulation of KCC2 as a pathogenic mechanism.

Type: Article
Title: Rare pathogenic variants in WNK3 cause X-linked intellectual disability
Location: United States
DOI: 10.1016/j.gim.2022.05.009
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gim.2022.05.009
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.
Keywords: Exome sequencing, KCC2, Neurodevelopmental disease, WNK3, X-linked intellectual disability
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > UCL School of Pharmacy > Pharma and Bio Chemistry
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > UCL School of Pharmacy
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10151159
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