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EXPO-12: Development and validation of the Exposure to Violent Extremism Scale

Clemmow, C; Rottweiler, B; Gill, P; (2022) EXPO-12: Development and validation of the Exposure to Violent Extremism Scale. Psychology of Violence , 12 (5) pp. 333-346. 10.1037/vio0000430. Green open access

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Abstract

Objective: This study details the development and validation of the 12-item Exposure to Violent Extremism Scale (EXPO-12). We aimed to undertake a transparent and robust process of scale development to present a tool to facilitate research on the relationship between exposure and violent extremism. / Method: First, we generated an initial item pool and evaluated items via expert feedback (n = 6) and a task designed to assess item comprehension (n = 13; Study 1). Second, we explored the underlying factor structure with exploratory factor analysis (EFA) and evaluated item characteristics with item response theory (IRT) in a representative sample of the U.K. population (n = 1, 509; Study 2). Finally, we sought to replicate the factor structure proposed by Study 2 via confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and examined convergent validity with a related construct, violent extremist intentions (n = 1, 475; Study 3). / Results: Study 1 resulted in a preliminary pool of 40 items. Study 2 used EFA to establish a four-factor structure consisting of 21 items. IRT further reduced the item pool by evaluating differential item functioning, discrimination, and location parameters, resulting in EXPO-12. Study 3 replicated the factor structure proposed in Study 2 via CFA. EXPO-12 demonstrated good convergent validity with violent extremist intentions. / Conclusion: EXPO-12 is presented as a preliminarily validated measure of the concept, alongside its limitations. The scale’s main implication is as a tool to facilitate research to unpack the complexity and nuances of the relationship between exposure and violent extremism.

Type: Article
Title: EXPO-12: Development and validation of the Exposure to Violent Extremism Scale
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1037/vio0000430
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1037/vio0000430
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Security and Crime Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10149728
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