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Electrospun 1D and 2D Carbon and Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Piezoelectric Nanocomposites

Song, Hang; Song, Wenhui; Song, Jin-hua; Torrejon, Virginia Martin; Xia, Qinxiang; (2022) Electrospun 1D and 2D Carbon and Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Piezoelectric Nanocomposites. Journal of Nanomaterials , 2022 , Article 9452318. 10.1155/2022/9452318. Green open access

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Abstract

Piezoelectric nanocomposite fibrous membranes consisting of polymer polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as matrix and incorporating 1D carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2D graphene oxide (GO) were prepared using an electrospinning process. The influence of the filler type, loading, and dispersion status on the total PVDF crystallinity (X_{c}); Piezoelectric nanocomposite fibrous membranes consisting of polymer polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) as matrix and incorporating 1D carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and 2D graphene oxide (GO) were prepared using an electrospinning process. The influence of the filler type, loading, and dispersion status on the total PVDF crystallinity (F_{β}); the volume fraction of β phase in the samples (v_{β}); and the piezoelectric coefficient d_{33} were investigated. The V_{β} is used to assess the formation of β phase for the first time, which considered the combined influence of fillers on X_{c} and F_{β}, and is more practical than other investigations using only F_{β} for the assessment. The inclusion of all types of carbon fillers had resulted in a considerable reduction in the X_{c} compared with the neat PVDF, and the X_{c} decreased with the CNT loading while increased with the GO loading. The addition of CNT and GO had also reduced the F_{β} compared with the neat PVDF, and F_{β} increased with CNT loading while decreased as GO loading increased. The v_{β} is significantly reduced by the addition of CNT and GO, while v_{β} decreases with CNT and GO loading increases. Since the calculation of V_{β} has considered the combined influence of fillers on X_{c} and F_{β}, both of which were reduced by incorporating CNT and GO, the reduction of v_{β} was expected. The v_{β} of the PVDF/CNT composites were higher than that of the PVDF/GO composites. Although it is generally anticipated that d_{33} increases with v_{β}, it is observed that in the presence of CNT, d_{33} is dominated by the increase in electric conductivity of the composites during and after the electrospinning process, giving rise to transport of charges, produced by β crystals within the fiber to the surface of the sample. In addition, the 1D CNTs may have promoted the orientation of β crystals in the d_{33} direction, therefore, enhancing the d_{33} of the composites despite the hindrance of the β-phase formation (i.e., the reduction of v_{β}). Adding CNTs can also improve piezoelectricity through interfacial polarization, which increases the dielectric constant of composite (mobile charges within CNTs facilitate composite polarization). CNT loadings higher than 0.01 wt.% are sufficient to outperform the neat PVDF, and d_{33} becomes 59.7% higher than the neat PVDF at 0.03 wt.% loading, but only GO loadings of 0.5 wt.% achieved comparable d_{33} to the neat PVDF; further increase in GO loading had resulted in a decline in d_{33}. The low conductivity of GO, the influence of flocculation, and the lower aspect ratio compared with CNT may result in lower electron transfer and less orientation of the β-phase polycrystalline. The d_{33} of the PVDF/CNT composites is higher than that of the PVDF/GO composites despite much higher loading of GO. This study aims to contribute to the development of PVDF nanocomposites in piezoelectric energy harvesting applications (e.g., self-powered biosensors and wireless sensor networks).

Type: Article
Title: Electrospun 1D and 2D Carbon and Polyvinylidene Fluoride (PVDF) Piezoelectric Nanocomposites
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1155/2022/9452318
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/9452318
Language: English
Additional information: © 2022 Hang Song et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci > Department of Surgical Biotechnology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10149405
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