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A comparison of vitamin D and cathelicidin (LL-37) levels between patients with active TB and their healthy contacts in a high HIV prevalence setting: a prospective descriptive study

Lungu, PS; Kilembe, W; Lakhi, S; Sukwa, T; Njelesani, E; Zumla, AI; Mwaba, P; (2022) A comparison of vitamin D and cathelicidin (LL-37) levels between patients with active TB and their healthy contacts in a high HIV prevalence setting: a prospective descriptive study. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene , 116 (4) pp. 336-343. 10.1093/trstmh/trab126. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Studies from Asia and Europe indicate an association between vitamin D deficiency and susceptibility to TB. We performed an observational case-control study to determine vitamin D and cathelicidin (LL-37) levels and their association with active TB in newly diagnosed and microbiologically confirmed adult TB patients in Zambia, a high HIV prevalence setting. METHODS: Both total vitamin D and LL-37 were measured using ELISA from serum and supernatant isolated from cultured whole blood that was stimulated with heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Statistical analysis was performed using STATA statistical software version 12. RESULTS: The median vitamin D in TB patients and healthy contacts was 28.7 (19.88-38.64) and 40.8 (31.2-49.44) ng/ml, respectively (p<0.001). The median LL-37 in TB patients compared with healthy contacts was 1.87 (2.74-8.93) and 6.73 (5.6-9.58) ng/ml, respectively (p=0.0149). Vitamin D correlation with LL-37 in healthy contacts was R2=0.7 (95% CI 0.566 to 0.944), p<0.0001. Normal vitamin D significantly predicted a healthy status (OR 4.06, p=0.002). CONCLUSIONS: Significantly lower levels of vitamin D and LL-37 are seen in adults with newly diagnosed active TB. Longitudinal studies across various geographical regions are required to accurately define the roles of vitamin D and LL-37 in preventive and TB treatment outcomes.

Type: Article
Title: A comparison of vitamin D and cathelicidin (LL-37) levels between patients with active TB and their healthy contacts in a high HIV prevalence setting: a prospective descriptive study
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1093/trstmh/trab126
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1093/trstmh/trab126
Language: English
Additional information: © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: Active TB, Cathelicidin, Healthy contacts, Vitamin D, Adult, Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides, Case-Control Studies, HIV Infections, Humans, Prevalence, Prospective Studies, Tuberculosis, Pulmonary, Vitamin D
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Infection and Immunity
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10147556
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