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Inflammation in embryology: A review of neuroinflammation in spina bifida

Nivrenjeet, S; Mohd-Zin, SW; Nisheljeet, S; Azizi, AB; Palaniandy, K; Firdaus-Raih, M; Ariffin, MHM; ... Abdul-Aziz, NM; + view all (2022) Inflammation in embryology: A review of neuroinflammation in spina bifida. Neuroscience Research Notes , 5 (1) , Article 132. 10.31117/neuroscirn.v5i1.132. Green open access

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Abstract

The occurrence of neuroinflammation after the failure of neural tube closure, resulting in spina bifida aperta, is well established but whether or not neuroinflammation contributes to damage to the neuroepithelium prior to and during closure is not known. Neuroinflammation may occur at different time periods after perturbation to the developing spinal cord. Evidence suggests that early neuroinflammation is detrimental, whereas the later chronic phase of neuroinflammation may have useful roles. The role of neuroinflammation in neural tube defects is complex. It is important to make the distinction of whether neuroinflammation is important for neuroprotection or detrimental to the neural tissue. This may directly be influenced by the location, magnitude and duration of the insult, as well as the expression of neurotrophic or neurotoxic molecules. The current understanding remains that the chronic damage to the developing spinal cord is likely due to the chemical and mechanical damage of the exposed neural tissue owing to the aggressive intrauterine environment, described as the “two-hit mechanism”. Astrogliosis in the exposed spinal cord has been described in animal models of spina bifida after the failure of closure during embryonic life. Still, its association with neuroinflammatory processes is poorly understood. In this review, we will discuss the current understanding of neuroinflammation in neural tube defects, specifically spina bifida, and highlight inflammation-targeted strategies that may potentially be used to treat this pathophysiological condition.

Type: Article
Title: Inflammation in embryology: A review of neuroinflammation in spina bifida
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.31117/neuroscirn.v5i1.132
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.31117/neuroscirn.v5i1.132
Language: English
Additional information: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License. The observations and associated materials published or posted by NeurosciRN are licensed by the authors for use and distribution in accord with the Creative Commons Attribution license CC BY-NC 4.0 international, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
Keywords: Neuroinflammation, spina bifida, neural tube defects, haemangioma, cytokine
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Developmental Biology and Cancer Dept
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10147548
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