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Clustering of physical health multimorbidity in people with severe mental illness: An accumulated prevalence analysis of United Kingdom primary care data

Launders, Naomi; Hayes, Joseph F; Price, Gabriele; Osborn, David PJ; (2022) Clustering of physical health multimorbidity in people with severe mental illness: An accumulated prevalence analysis of United Kingdom primary care data. PLoS Medicine , 19 (4) , Article e1003976. 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003976. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: People with severe mental illness (SMI) have higher rates of a range of physical health conditions, yet little is known regarding the clustering of physical health conditions in this population. We aimed to investigate the prevalence and clustering of chronic physical health conditions in people with SMI, compared to people without SMI. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We performed a cohort-nested accumulated prevalence study, using primary care data from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD), which holds details of 39 million patients in the United Kingdom. We identified 68,783 adults with a primary care diagnosis of SMI (schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or other psychoses) from 2000 to 2018, matched up to 1:4 to 274,684 patients without an SMI diagnosis, on age, sex, primary care practice, and year of registration at the practice. Patients had a median of 28.85 (IQR: 19.10 to 41.37) years of primary care observations. Patients with SMI had higher prevalence of smoking (27.65% versus 46.08%), obesity (24.91% versus 38.09%), alcohol misuse (3.66% versus 13.47%), and drug misuse (2.08% versus 12.84%) than comparators. We defined 24 physical health conditions derived from the Elixhauser and Charlson comorbidity indices and used logistic regression to investigate individual conditions and multimorbidity. We controlled for age, sex, region, and ethnicity and then additionally for health risk factors: smoking status, alcohol misuse, drug misuse, and body mass index (BMI). We defined multimorbidity clusters using multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) and K-means cluster analysis and described them based on the observed/expected ratio. Patients with SMI had higher odds of 19 of 24 conditions and a higher prevalence of multimorbidity (odds ratio (OR): 1.84; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.80 to 1.88, p < 0.001) compared to those without SMI, particularly in younger age groups (males aged 30 to 39: OR: 2.49; 95% CI: 2.27 to 2.73; p < 0.001; females aged 18 to 30: OR: 2.69; 95% CI: 2.36 to 3.07; p < 0.001). Adjusting for health risk factors reduced the OR of all conditions. We identified 7 multimorbidity clusters in those with SMI and 7 in those without SMI. A total of 4 clusters were common to those with and without SMI; 1, heart disease, appeared as one cluster in those with SMI and 3 distinct clusters in comparators; and 2 small clusters were unique to the SMI cohort. Limitations to this study include missing data, which may have led to residual confounding, and an inability to investigate the temporal associations between SMI and physical health conditions. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, we observed that physical health conditions cluster similarly in people with and without SMI, although patients with SMI had higher burden of multimorbidity, particularly in younger age groups. While interventions aimed at the general population may also be appropriate for those with SMI, there is a need for interventions aimed at better management of younger-age multimorbidity, and preventative measures focusing on diseases of younger age, and reduction of health risk factors.

Type: Article
Title: Clustering of physical health multimorbidity in people with severe mental illness: An accumulated prevalence analysis of United Kingdom primary care data
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003976
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1003976
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright: © 2022 Launders et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Division of Psychiatry
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10147390
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