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Mapping clustered mutations in cancer reveals APOBEC3 mutagenesis of ecDNA

Bergstrom, Erik N; Luebeck, Jens; Petljak, Mia; Khandekar, Azhar; Barnes, Mark; Zhang, Tongwu; Steele, Christopher D; ... Alexandrov, Ludmil B; + view all (2022) Mapping clustered mutations in cancer reveals APOBEC3 mutagenesis of ecDNA. Nature 10.1038/s41586-022-04398-6. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

Clustered somatic mutations are common in cancer genomes and previous analyses reveal several types of clustered single-base substitutions, which include doublet- and multi-base substitutions1–5, diffuse hypermutation termed omikli6, and longer strand-coordinated events termed kataegis3,7–9. Here we provide a comprehensive characterization of clustered substitutions and clustered small insertions and deletions (indels) across 2,583 whole-genome-sequenced cancers from 30 types of cancer10. Clustered mutations were highly enriched in driver genes and associated with differential gene expression and changes in overall survival. Several distinct mutational processes gave rise to clustered indels, including signatures that were enriched in tobacco smokers and homologous-recombination-deficient cancers. Doublet-base substitutions were caused by at least 12 mutational processes, whereas most multi-base substitutions were generated by either tobacco smoking or exposure to ultraviolet light. Omikli events, which have previously been attributed to APOBEC3 activity6, accounted for a large proportion of clustered substitutions; however, only 16.2% of omikli matched APOBEC3 patterns. Kataegis was generated by multiple mutational processes, and 76.1% of all kataegic events exhibited mutational patterns that are associated with the activation-induced deaminase (AID) and APOBEC3 family of deaminases. Co-occurrence of APOBEC3 kataegis and extrachromosomal DNA (ecDNA), termed kyklonas (Greek for cyclone), was found in 31% of samples with ecDNA. Multiple distinct kyklonic events were observed on most mutated ecDNA. ecDNA containing known cancer genes exhibited both positive selection and kyklonic hypermutation. Our results reveal the diversity of clustered mutational processes in human cancer and the role of APOBEC3 in recurrently mutating and fuelling the evolution of ecDNA.

Type: Article
Title: Mapping clustered mutations in cancer reveals APOBEC3 mutagenesis of ecDNA
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1038/s41586-022-04398-6
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.1038/s41586-022-04398-6
Language: English
Additional information: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
Keywords: Cancer, Cancer genetics, Cancer genomics
UCL classification: UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Cancer Institute > Research Department of Pathology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Cancer Institute
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10143771
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