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Diabetes and other vascular risk factors in association with the risk of lower extremity amputation in chronic limb-threatening ischemia: a prospective cohort study

Ying, AF; Tang, TY; Jin, A; Chong, TT; Hausenloy, DJ; Koh, W-P; (2022) Diabetes and other vascular risk factors in association with the risk of lower extremity amputation in chronic limb-threatening ischemia: a prospective cohort study. Cardiovascular Diabetology , 21 , Article 7. 10.1186/s12933-021-01441-0. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes are at increased risk of developing chronic limb-threatening ischemia (CLTI) due to peripheral arterial disease, and this often results in lower extremity amputation (LEA). Little is known of the interaction between diabetes and other vascular risk factors in affecting the risk of CLTI. METHODS: We investigated the association of diabetes, and its interaction with hypertension, body mass index (BMI) and smoking, with the risk of LEA due to CLTI in the population-based Singapore Chinese Health Study. Participants were interviewed at recruitment (1993-1998) and 656 incident LEA cases were identified via linkage with nationwide hospital database through 2017. Multivariate-adjusted Cox proportional hazards models were used to compute hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs for the associations. RESULTS: The HR (95% CI) for LEA risk was 13.41 (11.38-15.79) in participants with diabetes compared to their counterparts without diabetes, and the risk increased in a stepwise manner with duration of diabetes (P for trend < 0.0001). Hypertension and increased BMI independently increased LEA risk in those without diabetes but did not increase the risk in those with diabetes (P for interaction with diabetes ≤ 0.0006). Conversely, current smoking conferred a risk increment of about 40% regardless of diabetes status. CONCLUSIONS: Although diabetes conferred more than tenfold increase in risk of LEA, hypertension and increased BMI did not further increase LEA risk among those with diabetes, suggesting a common mechanistic pathway for these risk factors. In contrast, smoking may act via an alternative pathway and thus confer additional risk regardless of diabetes status.

Type: Article
Title: Diabetes and other vascular risk factors in association with the risk of lower extremity amputation in chronic limb-threatening ischemia: a prospective cohort study
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1186/s12933-021-01441-0
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12933-021-01441-0
Language: English
Additional information: © The Author(s) 2022. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativeco mmons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Keywords: Cardiovascular risk factors, Clinical epidemiology, Diabetes and lower limb amputation, Diabetes and peripheral vascular disease, Vascular epidemiology
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Pre-clinical and Fundamental Science
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10142094
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