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Cardiac Amyloidosis: A Review of Current Imaging Techniques

Razvi, Y; Patel, RK; Fontana, M; Gillmore, JD; (2021) Cardiac Amyloidosis: A Review of Current Imaging Techniques. Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine , 8 , Article 751293. 10.3389/fcvm.2021.751293. Green open access

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Abstract

Systemic amyloidosis is a rare, heterogenous group of diseases characterized by extracellular infiltration and deposition of amyloid fibrils. Cardiac amyloidosis (CA) occurs when these fibrils deposit within the myocardium. Untreated, this inevitably leads to progressive heart failure and fatality. Historically, treatment has remained supportive, however, there are now targeted disease-modifying therapeutics available to patients with CA. Advances in echocardiography, cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) and repurposed bone scintigraphy have led to a surge in diagnoses of CA and diagnosis at an earlier stage of the disease natural history. CMR has inherent advantages in tissue characterization which has allowed us to better understand the pathological disease process behind CA. Combined with specialist assessment and repurposed bone scintigraphy, diagnosis of CA can be made without the need for invasive histology in a significant proportion of patients. With existing targeted therapeutics, and novel agents being developed, understanding these imaging modalities is crucial to achieving early diagnosis for patients with CA. This will allow for early treatment intervention, accurate monitoring of disease course over time, and thereby improve the length and quality of life of patients with a disease that historically had an extremely poor prognosis. In this review, we discuss key radiological features of CA, focusing on the two most common types; immunoglobulin light chain (AL) and transthyretin (ATTR) CA. We highlight recent advances in imaging techniques particularly in respect of their clinical application and utility in diagnosis of CA as well as for tracking disease change over time.

Type: Article
Title: Cardiac Amyloidosis: A Review of Current Imaging Techniques
Location: Switzerland
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3389/fcvm.2021.751293
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.3389/fcvm.2021.751293
Language: English
Additional information: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third-party material in this article are included in the Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/
Keywords: ATTR, CMR (cardiovascular magnetic resonance), cardiac amyloid, echo, hATTR, inotersen, light chain (AL) amyloidosis, patisiran
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Inflammation
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10141738
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