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Effect of antiretroviral treatment on blood-brain barrier integrity in HIV-1 infection

Anesten, B; Zetterberg, H; Nilsson, S; Brew, BJ; Fuchs, D; Price, RW; Gisslén, M; (2021) Effect of antiretroviral treatment on blood-brain barrier integrity in HIV-1 infection. BMC Neurology , 21 , Article 494. 10.1186/s12883-021-02527-8. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Blood-brain barrier (BBB) injury is prevalent in patients with HIV-associated dementia (HAD) and is a frequent feature of HIV encephalitis. Signs of BBB damage are also sometimes found in neuroasymptomatic HIV-infected individuals without antiretroviral therapy (ART). The aim of this study was to investigate the integrity of the BBB before and after initiation of ART in both neuroasymptomatic HIV infection and in patients with HAD. METHODS: We determined BBB integrity by measuring cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)/plasma albumin ratios in archived CSF samples prior to and after initiation of ART in longitudinally-followed neuroasymptomatic HIV-1-infected individuals and patients with HAD. We also analyzed HIV RNA in blood and CSF, IgG Index, CSF WBC counts, and CSF concentrations of β2-micoglobulin, neopterin, and neurofilament light chain protein (NfL). RESULTS: We included 159 HIV-infected participants; 82 neuroasymptomatic individuals and 77 with HAD. All neuroasymptomatic individuals (82/82), and 10/77 individuals with HAD, were longitudinally followed with a median (interquartile range, IQR) follow-up of 758 (230-1752) days for the neuroasymptomatic individuals, and a median (IQR) follow-up of 241 (50-994) days for the individuals with HAD. Twelve percent (10/82) of the neuroasymptomatic individuals and 80% (8/10) of the longitudinally-followed individuals with HAD had elevated albumin ratios at baseline. At the last follow-up, 9% (7/82) of the neuroasymptomatic individuals and 20% (2/10) of the individuals with HAD had elevated albumin ratios. ART significantly decreased albumin ratios in both neuroasymptomatic individuals and in patients with HAD. CONCLUSION: These findings indicate that ART improves and possibly normalizes BBB integrity in both neuroasymptomatic HIV-infected individuals and in patients with HAD.

Type: Article
Title: Effect of antiretroviral treatment on blood-brain barrier integrity in HIV-1 infection
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1186/s12883-021-02527-8
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12883-021-02527-8
Language: English
Additional information: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Keywords: HIV, Cerebrospinal fluid, Blood-brain-barrier, Albumin ratio, Antiretroviral therapy, Biomarkers
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Neurodegenerative Diseases
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10141221
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