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Cochrane corner: PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease

Carter, J-P; Hingorani, AD; Wilkins, J; Schmidt, AF; (2021) Cochrane corner: PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Heart 10.1136/heartjnl-2021-319629. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

Introduction: Drug therapies targeted at the reduction of low-density lipoproteincholesterol (LDL-C) are mainstream in the treatment of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and particularly for the prevention of coronary heart disease. In patients who do not have a sufficient response to, or who do not tolerate traditional LDL-C-lowering therapies such as statins or ezetimibe, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against PCSK9 (PCSK9 inhibitors) may provide an alternative treatment. Non-mAb-based PCSK9 inhibitors such as inclisiran are also emerging but currently lack robust outcome data1 and their effects are not considered in the current review. In this synopsis, we summarise findings from a recent update of a Cochrane systematic review on the efficacy and safety of PCSK9 inhibitors.2 This article focuses on the effects on outcomes (CVD and total mortality), safety, and the quality of the evidence in studies of mAb PCSK9 inhibitors alirocumab and evolocumab. Most of the available studies compared PCSK9 mAb treatment against placebo (against a background of usual care including statin and or ezetimibe), with a smaller group of studies evaluating the effects of PCSK9 mAb directly against statins and/or ezetimibe (none of the trials compared PCSK9 exclusively against statin treatment). Methods: The following databases were systematically searched for suitable randomised controlled trials (RCTs): Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, ClinicalTrials.gov and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. Parallel-group and factorial RCTs with at least 24 weeks of follow-up were eligible; due to discontinuation of bococizumab and RG7652, studies examining these mAbs were excluded in this update. Summary of findings The 24 selected randomised trials (60 997 participants, box 1) predominantly included high-risk patients, for example, by enrolling patients with non-optimal LDL-C concentration despite treatment with statins or ezetimibe, or with a history of CVD. The study sample included 1879 who had familial hypercholesterolaemia (FH) (22% of the alirocumab participants and 38% of the evolocumab participants who provided information on FH status), and 18 908 (31%) with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) at baseline (32% in alirocumab and 34% evolocumab trials; out of participants with reported T2DM status). Of the included patients, 4590 had no history of CVD (10% of the alirocumab patients and 7% of the evolocumab participants). Alirocumab was evaluated in 18 trials and evolocumab in 6 trials. Comparisons were made against placebo in 18 trials, ezetimibe and/or statins in 6 trials. Tables 1 and 2 display the key results of the meta-analysis for both PCSK9 inhibitors compared with placebo and with statins and/or ezetimibe, respectively.

Type: Article
Title: Cochrane corner: PCSK9 monoclonal antibodies for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular disease
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1136/heartjnl-2021-319629
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/heartjnl-2021-319629
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Population Science and Experimental Medicine
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10139865
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