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Vasculitis in a patient with mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD): a case report

Omoyinmi, E; Rowczenio, D; Sebire, N; Brogan, PA; Eleftheriou, D; (2021) Vasculitis in a patient with mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD): a case report. Pediatric Rheumatology , 19 (1) , Article 161. 10.1186/s12969-021-00645-8. Green open access

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Abstract

Background: Mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD) is a rare autoinflammatory condition caused by biallelic loss-of-function (LOF) mutations in mevalonate kinase (MVK) gene encoding the enzyme mevalonate kinase. Patients with MKD display a variety of non-specific clinical manifestations, which can lead to diagnostic delay. We report the case of a child presenting with vasculitis that was found by genetic testing to be caused by MKD, and now add this autoinflammatory disease to the ever-expanding list of causes of monogenic vasculitides. Case presentation: A 2-year-old male presented with an acute 7-day history of high-grade fever, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, rectal bleeding and extensive purpuric and necrotic lesions, predominantly affecting the lower limbs. He had been suffering from recurrent episodes of fever from early in infancy, associated with maculopapular/petechial rashes triggered by intercurrent infection, and after vaccines. Extensive infection screen was negative. Skin biopsy revealed small vessel vasculitis. Visceral digital subtraction arteriography was normal. With a diagnosis of severe idiopathic cutaneous vasculitis, he was treated with corticosteroids and mycophenolate mofetil. Despite that his acute phase reactants remained elevated, fever persisted and the vasculitic lesions progressed. Next-generation sequencing revealed compound heterozygous mutation in MVK c.928G > A (p.V310M) and c.1129G > A (p.V377I) while reduced mevalonate enzyme activity was confirmed suggesting a diagnosis of MKD as a cause of the severe vasculitis. Prompt targeted treatment with IL-1 blockade was initiated preventing escalation to more toxic vasculitis therapies and reducing unnecessary exposure to cytotoxic treatment. Conclusions: Our report highlights the broad clinical phenotype of MKD that includes severe cutaneous vasculitis and emphasizes the need to consider early genetic screening for young children presenting with vasculitis to exclude a monogenic vasculitis which may be amenable to targeted treatment.

Type: Article
Title: Vasculitis in a patient with mevalonate kinase deficiency (MKD): a case report
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1186/s12969-021-00645-8
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12969-021-00645-8
Language: English
Additional information: Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Keywords: Science & Technology, Life Sciences & Biomedicine, Pediatrics, Rheumatology, Mevalonate kinase deficiency, Autoinflammation, Cutaneous vasculitis, Next-generation sequencing, IL-1 blockade, PERIODIC FEVER, MANIFESTATIONS, MUTATIONS
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Inflammation
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Population, Policy and Practice Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10139334
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