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Phenotyping hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using cardiac diffusion magnetic resonance imaging: the relationship between microvascular dysfunction and microstructural changes

Das, A; Kelly, C; Teh, I; Nguyen, C; Brown, LAE; Chowdhary, A; Jex, N; ... Dall'Armellina, E; + view all (2021) Phenotyping hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using cardiac diffusion magnetic resonance imaging: the relationship between microvascular dysfunction and microstructural changes. European Heart Journal - Cardiovascular Imaging , Article jeab210. 10.1093/ehjci/jeab210. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

AIMS: Microvascular dysfunction in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is predictive of clinical decline, however underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Cardiac diffusion tensor imaging (cDTI) allows in vivo characterization of myocardial microstructure by quantifying mean diffusivity (MD), fractional anisotropy (FA) of diffusion, and secondary eigenvector angle (E2A). In this cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) study, we examine associations between perfusion and cDTI parameters to understand the sequence of pathophysiology and the interrelation between vascular function and underlying microstructure. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty HCM patients underwent 3.0T CMR which included: spin-echo cDTI, adenosine stress and rest perfusion mapping, cine-imaging, and late gadolinium enhancement (LGE). Ten controls underwent cDTI. Myocardial perfusion reserve (MPR), MD, FA, E2A, and wall thickness were calculated per segment and further divided into subendocardial (inner 50%) and subepicardial (outer 50%) regions. Segments with wall thickness ≤11 mm, MPR ≥2.2, and no visual LGE were classified as 'normal'. Compared to controls, 'normal' HCM segments had increased MD (1.61 ± 0.09 vs. 1.46 ± 0.07 × 10-3 mm2/s, P = 0.02), increased E2A (60 ± 9° vs. 38 ± 12°, P < 0.001), and decreased FA (0.29 ± 0.04 vs. 0.35 ± 0.02, P = 0.002). Across all HCM segments, subendocardial regions had higher MD and lower MPR than subepicardial (MDendo 1.61 ± 0.08 × 10-3 mm2/s vs. MDepi 1.56 ± 0.18 × 10-3 mm2/s, P = 0.003, MPRendo 1.85 ± 0.83, MPRepi 2.28 ± 0.87, P < 0.0001). CONCLUSION: In HCM patients, even in segments with normal wall thickness, normal perfusion, and no scar, diffusion is more isotropic than in controls, suggesting the presence of underlying cardiomyocyte disarray. Increased E2A suggests the myocardial sheetlets adopt hypercontracted angulation in systole. Increased MD, most notably in the subendocardium, is suggestive of regional remodelling which may explain the reduced subendocardial blood flow.

Type: Article
Title: Phenotyping hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using cardiac diffusion magnetic resonance imaging: the relationship between microvascular dysfunction and microstructural changes
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1093/ehjci/jeab210
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1093/ehjci/jeab210
Language: English
Additional information: VC The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com
Keywords: diffusion tensor imaging, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, microvascular dysfunction
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Clinical Science
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10139113
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