UCL Discovery
UCL home » Library Services » Electronic resources » UCL Discovery

Photodegradation of iron gall ink affected by oxygen, humidity and visible radiation

Liu, Y; Fearn, T; Strlič, M; (2022) Photodegradation of iron gall ink affected by oxygen, humidity and visible radiation. Dyes and Pigments , 198 , Article 109947. 10.1016/j.dyepig.2021.109947. Green open access

[thumbnail of 1-s2.0-S0143720821008135-main.pdf]
Preview
Text
1-s2.0-S0143720821008135-main.pdf - Accepted Version

Download (2MB) | Preview

Abstract

The causes of the discolouration of iron gall ink have been debated for decades. As a contribution to the understanding of the photodegradation behaviour of iron gall ink, this paper discusses the effects of three environmental factors that are of primary concern – oxygen, moisture and light. Using a range of historical paper-based samples, a 23 full factorial experiment was designed to quantify the effects of oxygen concentration [O2], relative humidity (RH), illuminance (Ev) of broadband LED light, and their interactions. A change in diffuse reflectance with time was observed to mainly take place beyond 600 nm into the NIR range. The change followed similar patterns under all the experimental conditions, which was modelled by a logarithmic relationship with time of degradation. The rate constant was obtained and was found to be mainly affected by [O2], RH and their interaction. The role of Ev needs further investigation, however, its insignificant effect on the discolouration measured in this research suggested the possibility of effective degradation control with relaxed lighting controls. Furthermore, the wavelength sensitivity of iron gall ink's discolouration was investigated using narrowband radiation centred at three different wavelengths (Λ): 450 nm ([Λ450]), 525 nm ([Λ525]) and 625 nm ([Λ625]), with varying [O2] and RH. RH, Λ, the interaction between RH and Λ, and the interaction between RH and [O2] were found to have strong effect on the rate constant of discolouration. Among these factors, Λ showed the strongest effect, which decreased as Λ increased. Approximately 3x and more than 10x faster degradation by [Λ450] than [Λ525] and [Λ625] respectively was observed, which was likely to be associated with photon energy and quantum efficiency in absorption at different wavelength.

Type: Article
Title: Photodegradation of iron gall ink affected by oxygen, humidity and visible radiation
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.dyepig.2021.109947
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dyepig.2021.109947
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: Discolouration, Spectrophotometry, Factorial experimentation, Iron gall ink, Wavelength dependency
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences > Dept of Statistical Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of the Built Environment
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of the Built Environment > Bartlett School Env, Energy and Resources
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10138894
Downloads since deposit
15Downloads
Download activity - last month
Download activity - last 12 months
Downloads by country - last 12 months

Archive Staff Only

View Item View Item