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Human Genomics and Drug Development

Schmidt, AF; Hingorani, AD; Finan, C; (2022) Human Genomics and Drug Development. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine , 12 (2) , Article a039230. 10.1101/cshperspect.a039230. Green open access

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Abstract

Insights into the genetic basis of human disease are helping to address some of the key challenges in new drug development including the very high rates of failure. Here we review the recent history of an emerging, genomics-assisted approach to pharmaceutical research and development, and its relationship to Mendelian randomization (MR), a well-established analytical approach to causal inference. We demonstrate how human genomic data linked to pharmaceutically relevant phenotypes can be used for (1) drug target identification (mapping relevant drug targets to diseases), (2) drug target validation (inferring the likely effects of drug target perturbation), (3) evaluation of the effectiveness and specificity of compound-target engagement (inferring the extent to which the effects of a compound are exclusive to the target and distinguishing between on-target and off-target compound effects), and (4) the selection of end points in clinical trials (the diseases or conditions to be evaluated as trial outcomes). We show how genomics can help identify indication expansion opportunities for licensed drugs and repurposing of compounds developed to clinical phase that proved safe but ineffective for the original intended indication. We outline statistical and biological considerations in using MR for drug target validation (drug target MR) and discuss the obstacles and challenges for scaled applications of these genomics-based approaches.

Type: Article
Title: Human Genomics and Drug Development
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1101/cshperspect.a039230
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.1101/cshperspect.a039230
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Population Science and Experimental Medicine
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10138810
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