UCL Discovery
UCL home » Library Services » Electronic resources » UCL Discovery

Amoxicillin duration and dose for community-acquired pneumonia in children: the CAP-IT factorial non-inferiority RCT.

Barratt, S; Bielicki, JA; Dunn, D; Faust, SN; Finn, A; Harper, L; Jackson, P; ... Sharland, M; + view all (2021) Amoxicillin duration and dose for community-acquired pneumonia in children: the CAP-IT factorial non-inferiority RCT. Health Technology Assessment , 25 (60) 10.3310/hta25600. Green open access

[thumbnail of 3037963.pdf]
Preview
Text
3037963.pdf - Published Version

Download (1MB) | Preview

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Data are limited regarding the optimal dose and duration of amoxicillin treatment for community-acquired pneumonia in children. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy, safety and impact on antimicrobial resistance of shorter (3-day) and longer (7-day) treatment with amoxicillin at both a lower and a higher dose at hospital discharge in children with uncomplicated community-acquired pneumonia. DESIGN: A multicentre randomised double-blind 2 × 2 factorial non-inferiority trial in secondary care in the UK and Ireland. SETTING: Paediatric emergency departments, paediatric assessment/observation units and inpatient wards. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged > 6 months, weighing 6-24 kg, with a clinical diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia, in whom treatment with amoxicillin as the sole antibiotic was planned on discharge. INTERVENTIONS: Oral amoxicillin syrup at a dose of 35-50 mg/kg/day compared with a dose of 70-90 mg/kg/day, and 3 compared with 7 days' duration. Children were randomised simultaneously to each of the two factorial arms in a 1 : 1 ratio. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was clinically indicated systemic antibacterial treatment prescribed for respiratory tract infection (including community-acquired pneumonia), other than trial medication, up to 28 days after randomisation. Secondary outcomes included severity and duration of parent/guardian-reported community-acquired pneumonia symptoms, drug-related adverse events (including thrush, skin rashes and diarrhoea), antimicrobial resistance and adherence to trial medication. RESULTS: A total of 824 children were recruited from 29 hospitals. Ten participants received no trial medication and were excluded. Participants [median age 2.5 (interquartile range 1.6-2.7) years; 52% male] were randomised to either 3 (n = 413) or 7 days (n = 401) of trial medication at either lower (n = 410) or higher (n = 404) doses. There were 51 (12.5%) and 49 (12.5%) primary end points in the 3- and 7-day arms, respectively (difference 0.1%, 90% confidence interval -3.8% to 3.9%) and 51 (12.6%) and 49 (12.4%) primary end points in the low- and high-dose arms, respectively (difference 0.2%, 90% confidence interval -3.7% to 4.0%), both demonstrating non-inferiority. Resolution of cough was faster in the 7-day arm than in the 3-day arm for cough (10 days vs. 12 days) (p = 0.040), with no difference in time to resolution of other symptoms. The type and frequency of adverse events and rate of colonisation by penicillin-non-susceptible pneumococci were comparable between arms. LIMITATIONS: End-of-treatment swabs were not taken, and 28-day swabs were collected in only 53% of children. We focused on phenotypic penicillin resistance testing in pneumococci in the nasopharynx, which does not describe the global impact on the microflora. Although 21% of children did not attend the final 28-day visit, we obtained data from general practitioners for the primary end point on all but 3% of children. CONCLUSIONS: Antibiotic retreatment, adverse events and nasopharyngeal colonisation by penicillin-non-susceptible pneumococci were similar with the higher and lower amoxicillin doses and the 3- and 7-day treatments. Time to resolution of cough and sleep disturbance was slightly longer in children taking 3 days' amoxicillin, but time to resolution of all other symptoms was similar in both arms. FUTURE WORK: Antimicrobial resistance genotypic studies are ongoing, including whole-genome sequencing and shotgun metagenomics, to fully characterise the effect of amoxicillin dose and duration on antimicrobial resistance. The analysis of a randomised substudy comparing parental electronic and paper diary entry is also ongoing. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN76888927, EudraCT 2016-000809-36 and CTA 00316/0246/001-0006. FUNDING: This project was funded by the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Health Technology Assessment programme and will be published in full in Health Technology Assessment; Vol. 25, No. 60. See the NIHR Journals Library website for further project information.

Type: Article
Title: Amoxicillin duration and dose for community-acquired pneumonia in children: the CAP-IT factorial non-inferiority RCT.
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3310/hta25600
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.3310/hta25600
Language: English
Additional information: © 2021 Barratt et al. This work was produced by Barratt et al. under the terms of a commissioning contract issued by the Secretary of State for Health and Social Care. This is an Open Access publication distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution CC BY 4.0 licence, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, reproduction and adaption in any medium and for any purpose provided that it is properly attributed. See: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. For attribution the title, original author(s), the publication source – NIHR Journals Library, and the DOI of the publication must be cited.
Keywords: AMOXICILLIN, ANTIBIOTIC TREATMENT/DOSE, ANTIBIOTIC TREATMENT/DURATION, CHILDREN, COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA, RANDOMISED CONTROLLED TRIAL
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Inst of Clinical Trials and Methodology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Inst of Clinical Trials and Methodology > MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10138711
Downloads since deposit
91Downloads
Download activity - last month
Download activity - last 12 months
Downloads by country - last 12 months

Archive Staff Only

View Item View Item