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Deep sequencing of HIV-1 reveals extensive subtype variation and drug resistance after failure of first-line antiretroviral regimens in Nigeria

El Bouzidi, K; Datir, RP; Kwaghe, V; Roy, S; Frampton, D; Breuer, J; Ogbanufe, O; ... Gupta, RK; + view all (2021) Deep sequencing of HIV-1 reveals extensive subtype variation and drug resistance after failure of first-line antiretroviral regimens in Nigeria. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 10.1093/jac/dkab385. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Deep sequencing could improve understanding of HIV treatment failure and viral population dynamics. However, this tool is often inaccessible in low- and middle-income countries. OBJECTIVES: To determine the genetic patterns of resistance emerging in West African HIV-1 subtypes during first-line virological failure, and the implications for future antiretroviral options. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Participants were selected from a Nigerian cohort of people living with HIV who had failed first-line ART and subsequently switched to second-line therapy. Whole HIV-1 genome sequences were generated from first-line virological failure samples with Illumina MiSeq. Mutations detected at ≥2% frequency were analysed and compared by subtype. RESULTS: HIV-1 sequences were obtained from 101 participants (65% female, median age 30 years, median 32.9 months of nevirapine- or efavirenz-based ART). Thymidine analogue mutations (TAMs) were detected in 61%, other core NRTI mutations in 92% and NNRTI mutations in 99%. Minority variants (<20% frequency) comprised 18% of all mutations. K65R was more prevalent in CRF02_AG than G subtypes (33% versus 7%; P = 0.002), and ≥3 TAMs were more common in G than CRF02_AG (52% versus 24%; P = 0.004). Subtype G viruses also contained more RT cleavage site mutations. Cross-resistance to at least one of the newer NNRTIs, doravirine, etravirine or rilpivirine, was predicted in 81% of participants. CONCLUSIONS: Extensive drug resistance had accumulated in people with West African HIV-1 subtypes, prior to second-line ART. Deep sequencing significantly increased the detection of resistance-associated mutations. Caution should be used if considering newer-generation NNRTI agents in this setting.

Type: Article
Title: Deep sequencing of HIV-1 reveals extensive subtype variation and drug resistance after failure of first-line antiretroviral regimens in Nigeria
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkab385
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkab385
Language: English
Additional information: This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial License (https:// creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute for Global Health > Infection and Population Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10138055
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