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Translating genetic and functional data into clinical practice: a series of 223 families with myotonia

Suetterlin, K; Matthews, E; Sud, R; McCall, S; Fialho, D; Burge, J; Jayaseelan, D; ... Männikkö, R; + view all (2021) Translating genetic and functional data into clinical practice: a series of 223 families with myotonia. Brain 10.1093/brain/awab344. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

High throughput DNA sequencing is increasingly employed to diagnose single gene neurological and neuromuscular disorders. Large volumes of data present new challenges in data interpretation and its useful translation into clinical and genetic counselling for families. Even when a plausible gene is identified with confidence, interpretation of the clinical significance and inheritance pattern of variants can be challenging. We report our approach to evaluating variants in the skeletal muscle chloride channel ClC-1 identified in 223 probands with myotonia congenita (MC) as an example of these challenges. Sequencing of CLCN1, the gene that encodes CLC-1, is central to the diagnosis of MC. However, interpreting the pathogenicity and inheritance pattern of novel variants is notoriously difficult as both dominant and recessive mutations are reported throughout the channel sequence, ClC-1 structure-function is poorly understood and significant intra- and interfamilial variability in phenotype is reported. Heterologous expression systems to study functional consequences of CIC-1 variants are widely reported to aid the assessment of pathogenicity and inheritance pattern. However, heterogeneity of reported analyses does not allow for the systematic correlation of available functional and genetic data. We report the systematic evaluation of 95 CIC-1 variants in 223 probands, the largest reported patient cohort, in which we apply standardised functional analyses and correlate this with clinical assessment and inheritance pattern. Such correlation is important to determine if functional data improves the accuracy of variant interpretation and likely mode of inheritance. Our data provide an evidence-based approach that functional characterisation of ClC-1 variants improves clinical interpretation of their pathogenicity and inheritance pattern and serve as reference for 34 previously unreported and 28 previously uncharacterised CLCN1 variants. In addition, we identify novel pathogenic mechanisms and find that variants that alter voltage dependence of activation cluster in the first half of the transmembrane domains and variants that yield no currents cluster in the second half of the transmembrane domain. None of the variants in the intracellular domains were associated with dominant functional features or dominant inheritance pattern of MC. Our data help provide an initial estimate of the anticipated inheritance pattern based on the location of a novel variant and shows that systematic functional characterisation can significantly refine the assessment of risk of an associated inheritance pattern and consequently the clinical and genetic counselling.

Type: Article
Title: Translating genetic and functional data into clinical practice: a series of 223 families with myotonia
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1093/brain/awab344
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1093/brain/awab344
Language: English
Additional information: © The Author(s) (2021). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted reuse, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: skeletal muscle channelopathy, chloride channel, myotonia congenita, ClC-1, CLCN1
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Department of Neuromuscular Diseases
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > Div of Biosciences > Neuro, Physiology and Pharmacology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10135751
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