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Hesitancy around low dose CT screening for lung cancer

Dickson, JL; Horst, C; Nair, A; Tisi, S; Prendecki, R; Janes, SM; (2021) Hesitancy around low dose CT screening for lung cancer. Annals of Oncology 10.1016/j.annonc.2021.09.008. (In press).

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Abstract

Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. The absence of symptoms in early stage (I/II) disease, when curative treatment is possible, results in greater than 70% of cases being diagnosed at late stage (III/IV), when treatment is rarely curative. This contributes greatly to lung cancer's poor prognosis which sees only 16.2% of individuals diagnosed with the disease alive at 5 years. Early detection is key to improving lung cancer survival outcomes. As a result, there has been longstanding interest in finding a reliable screening test. After little success with chest radiography and sputum cytology, in 2011 the US National Lung Screening Trial (NLST) demonstrated that annual Low Dose Computed Tomography (LDCT) screening reduced lung cancer specific mortality by 20%, when compared with annual chest radiography. In 2020, the NELSON study demonstrated an even greater reduction in lung cancer specific mortality for LDCT screening at 0, 1, 3 and 5.5 years of 24% in men, when compared to no screening. Despite these impressive results, a call to arms in the 2017 European position statement on Lung Cancer Screening (LCS), and the widespread introduction across the US, there was, until recently, no population-based European national screening programme in place. We address the potential barriers and outstanding concerns including common screening foes, such as false positive tests, overdiagnosis, and the negative psychological impact of screening, as well as others more unique to LDCT LCS, including appropriate risk stratification of potential participants, radiation exposure and incidental findings. In doing this, we conclude that whilst the evidence generated from ongoing work can be used to refine the screening process, for those risks which remain, appropriate and acceptable mitigations are available, and none should serve as barriers to the implementation of national unified LCS programmes across Europe and beyond.

Type: Article
Title: Hesitancy around low dose CT screening for lung cancer
Location: England
DOI: 10.1016/j.annonc.2021.09.008
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annonc.2021.09.008
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.
Keywords: Early detection, Low Dose CT (LDCT), Lung cancer, Screening
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Respiratory Medicine
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10135713
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