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Ultrasensitive hydrogen detection by electrostatically formed silicon nanowire decorated by palladium nanoparticles

Mukherjee, A; Gnaim, M; Tov, IS; Hargreaves, L; Hayon, J; Shluger, A; Rosenwaks, Y; (2021) Ultrasensitive hydrogen detection by electrostatically formed silicon nanowire decorated by palladium nanoparticles. Sensors and Actuators B: Chemical , 346 , Article 130509. 10.1016/j.snb.2021.130509.

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Abstract

Developing high performance hydrogen (H_{2}) sensors is of utmost importance to facilitate the safe usage of H_{2} as the alternative source of clean and renewable energy. We present an ultra-sensitive H_{2} sensor operating in air and based on electrostatically formed nanowire (EFN) sensor decorated by palladium nanoparticles (Pd NPs). By appropriate tuning of the various gate voltages of the EFN, an extremely high sensor response of ∼2 × 10^{6} % (0.8 % H_{2} exposure) and a sensitivity of ∼400 % ppm^{−1} is obtained at room temperature (20 ± 2 °C). This sensor outperforms, to the best of our knowledge, most of the reported resistive and field effect transistor (FET) based H^{2} sensors. The EFN power consumption varies from few pW to ∼436 nW at maximum current operation thus enabling ultra-low power usage at room temperature. In addition, the sensor exhibits fast response and recovery times, retains good sensing performances even at 50 % relative humidity (RH) and exhibits reproducibility over time. Combining Pd NPs with the unique features of the EFN platform makes Pd-EFN a versatile, robust, low power, rapid, and highly sensitive H_{2} sensor.

Type: Article
Title: Ultrasensitive hydrogen detection by electrostatically formed silicon nanowire decorated by palladium nanoparticles
DOI: 10.1016/j.snb.2021.130509
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.snb.2021.130509
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher's terms and conditions.
Keywords: Electrostatically formed silicon nanowire, Palladium nanoparticles, Hydrogen sensing, Kelvin probe force microscopy
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Maths and Physical Sciences > Dept of Physics and Astronomy
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10134939
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