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Differentiated integration as a fair scheme of cooperation

Bellamy, R; Kröger, S; (2021) Differentiated integration as a fair scheme of cooperation. Review of Social Economy pp. 1-23. 10.1080/00346764.2021.1968477. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

Differentiated integration (DI), whereby some MS opt out or are excluded from certain common EU policies for sovereignty or capacity reasons, may be thought to undermine the EU’s functioning as what John Rawls called a fair scheme of cooperation, grounded in norms of impartiality and reciprocity. However, we argue that different forms of DI can be compatible with either fair cooperation between states on the model of Rawls’ Law of Peoples or cooperation among citizens on the model of Rawls’ two principles of domestic justice. Meanwhile, the EU has features of both, being an international Union of states and a supra- and trans-national Union of citizens. We defend the coherence of this combination and contend that DI can provide a justified mechanism for ensuring fairness between states remains compatible with fairness between citizens both within and across states. Indeed it offers a potential model for other forms of international cooperation.

Type: Article
Title: Differentiated integration as a fair scheme of cooperation
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1080/00346764.2021.1968477
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1080/00346764.2021.1968477
Language: English
Additional information: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercialNoDerivatives License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Keywords: Fairness, Rawls, differentiated integration, EU, democracy
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of S&HS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of S&HS > Dept of Political Science
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10133547
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