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Is the skin microbiota a modifiable risk factor for breast disease?: A systematic review

Wang, K; Nakano, K; Naderi, N; Bajaj-Elliott, M; Mosahebi, A; (2021) Is the skin microbiota a modifiable risk factor for breast disease?: A systematic review. Breast , 59 pp. 279-285. 10.1016/j.breast.2021.07.014. Green open access

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Abstract

Purpose: High prevalence, unreliable risk discrimination and poor clinical outcomes are observed in malignant and benign breast diseases (BD). The involvement of microbial communities in the development of BD has become topical, and distal influences of microbial dysregulation in the breast have been well established. Despite advances, the role of the breast skin microbiota in BD remains unclear. Interactions between the skin microbiota and the underlying mucosal immune system are complex. In homeostasis, the skin offers a physical barrier protecting underlying breast tissue from skin commensals and noxious environmental triggers. Our review aims to illuminate the role of the skin microbiota in the development of BD. Methods: Adhering to the PRISMA protocol, a systematic review was conducted utilising the Medline and Embase search engines. Results: Through a comprehensive search of the last ten years, twenty-two studies satisfied the inclusion criteria. Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were identified as the most prevalent phyla of both breast tissue and skin in healthy controls and BD. High abundance of skin commensals, specifically some species of Staphylococcus, have been linked in breast cancer and metastases. Similarly, dysregulated microbial abundance is also seen in inflammatory and implant-associated BD. These findings raise the hypothesis that the skin microbiota plays a role in tissue homeostasis and may contribute to a range of breast pathologies. Several mechanisms of microbial transfer to underlying tissue have been proposed, including retrograde transfer through ductal systems, breakdown of the skin barrier, and migration through nipple-aspirate fluid. Conclusion: Our review provides preliminary insights into the skin microbiota as a modifiable risk factor for BD. This raises opportunities for future studies in antimicrobials/probiotics as an adjunct to, or replacement of surgery; a diagnostic and/or prognostic tool for BD; and the possibility of conditioning the microbiota to manage BD.

Type: Article
Title: Is the skin microbiota a modifiable risk factor for breast disease?: A systematic review
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.breast.2021.07.014
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.breast.2021.07.014
Language: English
Additional information: /© 2021 Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).
Keywords: Breast cancer, Breast disease, Microbiota, Breast skin, Antimicrobial, Probiotic
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci > Department of Surgical Biotechnology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10133026
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