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Plasticity of the Immune System in Children Following Treatment Interruption in HIV-1 Infection

Gibb, D; (2021) Plasticity of the Immune System in Children Following Treatment Interruption in HIV-1 Infection. Frontiers in Immunology , 12 , Article 643189. 10.3389/fimmu.2021.643189. Green open access

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Abstract

It is intriguing that, unlike adults with HIV-1, children with HIV-1 reach a greater CD4+ T cell recovery following planned treatment cessation. The reasons for the better outcomes in children remain unknown but may be related to increased thymic output and diversity of T cell receptor repertoires. HIV-1 infected children from the PENTA 11 trial tolerated planned treatment interruption without adverse long-term clinical, virological, or immunological consequences, once antiretroviral therapy was re-introduced. This contrasts to treatment interruption trials of HIV-1 infected adults, who had rapid changes in T cells and slow recovery when antiretroviral therapy was restarted. How children can develop such effective immune responses to planned treatment interruption may be critical for future studies. PENTA 11 was a randomized, phase II trial of planned treatment interruptions in HIV-1-infected children (ISRCTN 36694210). In this sub-study, eight patients in long-term follow-up were chosen with CD4+ count>500/ml, viral load <50c/ml at baseline: four patients on treatment interruption and four on continuous treatment. Together with measurements of thymic output, we used high-throughput next generation sequencing and bioinformatics to systematically organize memory CD8+ and naïve CD4+ T cell receptors according to diversity, clonal expansions, sequence sharing, antigen specificity, and T cell receptor similarities following treatment interruption compared to continuous treatment. We observed an increase in thymic output following treatment interruption compared to continuous treatment. This was accompanied by an increase in T cell receptor clonal expansions, increased T cell receptor sharing, and higher sequence similarities between patients, suggesting a more focused T cell receptor repertoire. The low numbers of patients included is a limitation and the data should be interpreted with caution. Nonetheless, the high levels of thymic output and the high diversity of the T cell receptor repertoire in children may be sufficient to reconstitute the T cell immune repertoire and reverse the impact of interruption of antiretroviral therapy. Importantly, the effective T cell receptor repertoires following treatment interruption may inform novel therapeutic strategies in children infected with HIV-1.

Type: Article
Title: Plasticity of the Immune System in Children Following Treatment Interruption in HIV-1 Infection
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2021.643189
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.3389/fimmu.2021.643189
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © 2021 Sandgaard, Margetts, Attenborough, Gkouleli, Adams, Holm, Gibb, Gibbons, Giaquinto, De Rossi, Bamford, Palma, Chain, Gkazi and Klein. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Keywords: HIV-1, T cells, thymic output, antiretroviral treatment interruption, T cell receptor, immune repertoires, T cell receptor clonal expansions, high throughout sequencing
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Infection and Immunity
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Inst of Clinical Trials and Methodology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Inst of Clinical Trials and Methodology > MRC Clinical Trials Unit at UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10131570
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