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Evidence of an Eleventh-Century AD Cola Nitida Trade into the Middle Niger Region

Gestrich, N; Champion, L; Keïta, D; Coulibaly, N; Fuller, DQ; (2021) Evidence of an Eleventh-Century AD Cola Nitida Trade into the Middle Niger Region. African Archaeological Review 10.1007/s10437-021-09445-7. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

Kola nut (Cola cf. nitida) and Safou fruit (Dacryodes edulis) remains have been discovered in eleventh- to fourteenth-century archaeological contexts at Togu Missiri near Ségou in Mali. These remains are evidence of early trade in perishable foodstuffs from the West African forest zone into the Middle Niger region. On the basis of these finds, this paper argues that long-distance trade links were well established by the end of the first millennium AD. It thereby supports the hypothesis that dates the inception of trade between the West African forest zone and the savanna regions to the first millennium AD. The circumstances of the find are discussed, as are the implications for our understanding of the wider exchange network based on the Niger River system in the late first and early second millennium CE.

Type: Article
Title: Evidence of an Eleventh-Century AD Cola Nitida Trade into the Middle Niger Region
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1007/s10437-021-09445-7
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10437-021-09445-7
Language: English
Additional information: © 2021 Springer Nature Switzerland AG. This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Keywords: Kola nut, African plum, Stimulants, West African archaeology, Archaeobotany Mali
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of S&HS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of S&HS > Institute of Archaeology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL SLASH > Faculty of S&HS > Institute of Archaeology > Institute of Archaeology Gordon Square
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10131484
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