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Adaptive benefit of cross-modal plasticity following cochlear implantation in deaf adults

Anderson, CA; Wiggins, IM; Kitterick, PT; Hartley, DEH; (2017) Adaptive benefit of cross-modal plasticity following cochlear implantation in deaf adults. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) , 114 (38) pp. 10256-10261. 10.1073/pnas.1704785114. Green open access

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Abstract

It has been suggested that visual language is maladaptive for hearing restoration with a cochlear implant (CI) due to cross-modal recruitment of auditory brain regions. Rehabilitative guidelines therefore discourage the use of visual language. However, neuroscientific understanding of cross-modal plasticity following cochlear implantation has been restricted due to incompatibility between established neuroimaging techniques and the surgically implanted electronic and magnetic components of the CI. As a solution to this problem, here we used functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), a noninvasive optical neuroimaging method that is fully compatible with a CI and safe for repeated testing. The aim of this study was to examine cross-modal activation of auditory brain regions by visual speech from before to after implantation and its relation to CI success. Using fNIRS, we examined activation of superior temporal cortex to visual speech in the same profoundly deaf adults both before and 6 mo after implantation. Patients' ability to understand auditory speech with their CI was also measured following 6 mo of CI use. Contrary to existing theory, the results demonstrate that increased cross-modal activation of auditory brain regions by visual speech from before to after implantation is associated with better speech understanding with a CI. Furthermore, activation of auditory cortex by visual and auditory speech developed in synchrony after implantation. Together these findings suggest that cross-modal plasticity by visual speech does not exert previously assumed maladaptive effects on CI success, but instead provides adaptive benefits to the restoration of hearing after implantation through an audiovisual mechanism.

Type: Article
Title: Adaptive benefit of cross-modal plasticity following cochlear implantation in deaf adults
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1704785114
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1704785114
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: cochlear implantation, cross-modal plasticity, functional near-infrared spectroscopy, superior temporal cortex, visual speech, Adaptation, Physiological, Aged, Auditory Cortex, Auditory Perception, Case-Control Studies, Cochlear Implantation, Humans, Language, Middle Aged, Visual Perception
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Div of Psychology and Lang Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Div of Psychology and Lang Sciences > Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10131463
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