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Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Bacteria in Children With Acute Otitis Media and Ear Discharge: A Systematic Review.

Hullegie, S; Venekamp, RP; van Dongen, TMA; Hay, AD; Moore, MV; Little, P; Schilder, AGM; (2021) Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Bacteria in Children With Acute Otitis Media and Ear Discharge: A Systematic Review. Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal 10.1097/INF.0000000000003134. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Of children with acute otitis media (AOM), 15%-20% present with acute onset ear discharge due to a spontaneous perforation of the tympanic membrane (AOMd). This review aims to quantify the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance (AMR) status of bacteria in children with AOMd in the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) era. METHODS: Systematic searches were performed in PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane Library from inception to June 7, 2019. Two reviewers extracted relevant data and assessed risk of bias independently. All English studies reporting any prevalence and/or AMR data of bacterial middle ear isolates from children with AOMd were included. Risk of bias was assessed using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal checklist. RESULTS: Of 4088 unique records retrieved, 19 studies (10,560 children) were included. Overall quality was judged good. Streptococcus pneumoniae (median 26.1%, range 9.1%-47.9%), Haemophilus influenzae (median 18.8%, range 3.9%-55.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (median 12.3%, range 2.3%-34.9%) and Streptococcus pyogenes (median 11.8%, range 1.0%-30.9%) were the most prevalent bacteria. In 76.0% (median, range 48.7%-100.0%, 19 studies, 1,429 children) any bacterium was identified. AMR data were sparse and mainly limited to S. pneumoniae. We found no evidence of a clear shift in the prevalence of bacteria and AMR over time. CONCLUSIONS: In children with AOMd, S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae are the 2 predominant bacteria, followed by S. aureus and S. pyogenes in the post-PCV era. AMR data are sparse and no clearly change over time was observed. Ongoing surveillance of the microbiology profile in children with AOMd is warranted to guide antibiotic selection and to assess the impact of children's PCV status.

Type: Article
Title: Prevalence and Antimicrobial Resistance of Bacteria in Children With Acute Otitis Media and Ear Discharge: A Systematic Review.
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000003134
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000003134
Language: English
Additional information: © 2021 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal.
Keywords: Acute otitis media, ear discharge, otopathogens, antimicrobial resistance, review
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > The Ear Institute
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10130453
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