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Growth differentiation factor 15 increases in both cerebrospinal fluid and serum during pregnancy

Andersson-Hall, U; Svedin, P; Mallard, C; Blennow, K; Zetterberg, H; Holmäng, A; (2021) Growth differentiation factor 15 increases in both cerebrospinal fluid and serum during pregnancy. PLoS ONE , 16 (5) , Article e0248980. 10.1371/journal.pone.0248980. Green open access

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Abstract

AIM:Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) increases in serum during pregnancy to levels not seen in any other physiological state and is suggested to be involved in pregnancy-induced nausea, weight regulation and glucose metabolism. The main action of GDF15 is regulated through a receptor of the brainstem, i.e., through exposure of GDF15 in both blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The aim of the current study was to measure GDF15 in both CSF and serum during pregnancy, and to compare it longitudinally to non-pregnant levels. METHODS: Women were sampled at elective caesarean section (n = 45, BMI = 28.1±5.0) and were followed up 5 years after pregnancy (n = 25). GDF15, insulin and leptin were measured in CSF and serum. Additional measurements included plasma glucose, and serum adiponectin and Hs-CRP. RESULTS: GDF15 levels were higher during pregnancy compared with follow-up in both CSF (385±128 vs. 115±32 ng/l, P<0.001) and serum (73789±29198 vs. 404±102 ng/l, P<0.001). CSF levels correlated with serum levels during pregnancy (P<0.001), but not in the non-pregnant state (P = 0.98). Both CSF and serum GDF15 were highest in women carrying a female fetus (P<0.001). Serum GDF15 correlated with the homeostatic model assessment for beta-cell function and placental weight, and CSF GDF15 correlated inversely with CSF insulin levels. CONCLUSION: This, the first study to measure CSF GDF15 during pregnancy, demonstrated increased GDF15 levels in both serum and CSF during pregnancy. The results suggest that effects of GDF15 during pregnancy can be mediated by increases in both CSF and serum levels.

Type: Article
Title: Growth differentiation factor 15 increases in both cerebrospinal fluid and serum during pregnancy
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0248980
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0248980
Language: English
Additional information: © 2021 Andersson-Hall et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Neurodegenerative Diseases
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10129317
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