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Optimization of Collagen Chemical Crosslinking to Restore Biocompatibility of Tissue-Engineered Scaffolds

Islam, MM; AbuSamra, DB; Chivu, A; Argüeso, P; Dohlman, CH; Patra, HK; Chodosh, J; (2021) Optimization of Collagen Chemical Crosslinking to Restore Biocompatibility of Tissue-Engineered Scaffolds. Pharmaceutics , 13 (6) , Article 832. 10.3390/pharmaceutics13060832. Green open access

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Abstract

Collagen scaffolds, one of the most used biomaterials in corneal tissue engineering, are frequently crosslinked to improve mechanical properties, enzyme tolerance, and thermal stability. Crosslinkers such as 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) are compatible with tissues but provide low crosslinking density and reduced mechanical properties. Conversely, crosslinkers such as glutaraldehyde (GTA) can generate mechanically more robust scaffolds; however, they can also induce greater toxicity. Herein, we evaluated the effectivity of double-crosslinking with both EDC and GTA together with the capability of sodium metabisulfite (SM) and sodium borohydride (SB) to neutralize the toxicity and restore biocompatibility after crosslinking. The EDC-crosslinked collagen scaffolds were treated with different concentrations of GTA. To neutralize the free unreacted aldehyde groups, scaffolds were treated with SM or SB. The chemistry involved in these reactions together with the mechanical and functional properties of the collagen scaffolds was evaluated. The viability of the cells grown on the scaffolds was studied using different corneal cell types. The effect of each type of scaffold treatment on human monocyte differentiation was evaluated. One-way ANOVA was used for statistical analysis. The addition of GTA as a double-crosslinking agent significantly improved the mechanical properties and enzymatic stability of the EDC crosslinked collagen scaffold. GTA decreased cell biocompatibility but this effect was reversed by treatment with SB or SM. These agents did not affect the mechanical properties, enzymatic stability, or transparency of the double-crosslinked scaffold. Contact of monocytes with the different scaffolds did not trigger their differentiation into activated macrophages. Our results demonstrate that GTA improves the mechanical properties of EDC crosslinked scaffolds in a dose-dependent manner, and that subsequent treatment with SB or SM partially restores biocompatibility. This novel manufacturing approach would facilitate the translation of collagen-based artificial corneas to the clinical setting.

Type: Article
Title: Optimization of Collagen Chemical Crosslinking to Restore Biocompatibility of Tissue-Engineered Scaffolds
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3390/pharmaceutics13060832
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.3390/pharmaceutics13060832
Language: English
Additional information: © 2021 by the Authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Keywords: cornea; collagen; double-crosslinking; carbodiimide; glutaraldehyde; sodium metabisulfite; sodium borohydride; EDC/NHS
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Surgery and Interventional Sci > Department of Surgical Biotechnology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10129272
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