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High-Density Lignin-Derived Carbon Nanofiber Supercapacitors with Enhanced Volumetric Energy Density

Herou, S; Bailey, JJ; Kok, M; Schlee, P; Jervis, R; Brett, DJL; Shearing, PR; ... Titirici, M; + view all (2021) High-Density Lignin-Derived Carbon Nanofiber Supercapacitors with Enhanced Volumetric Energy Density. Advanced Science 10.1002/advs.202100016. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

Supercapacitors are increasingly used in short-distance electric transportation due to their long lifetime (≈15 years) and fast charging capability (>10 A g^{−1}). To improve their market penetration, while minimizing onboard weight and maximizing space-efficiency, materials costs must be reduced (<10 $ kg^{−1}) and the volumetric energy-density increased (>8 Wh L^{−1}). Carbon nanofibers display good gravimetric capacitance, yet their marketability is hindered by their low density (0.05–0.1 g cm^{−3}). Here, the authors increase the packing density of low-cost, free-standing carbon nanofiber mats (from 0.1 to 0.6 g cm−3) through uniaxial compression. X-ray computed tomography reveals that densification occurs by reducing the inter-fiber pore size (from 1–5 µm to 0.2–0.5 µm), which are not involved in double-layer capacitance. The improved packing density is directly proportional to the volumetric performances of the device, which reaches a volumetric capacitance of 130 F cm^{−3} and energy density of 6 Wh L^{−1} at 0.1 A g^{−1} using a loading of 3 mg cm^{−2}. The results outperform most commercial and lab-scale porous carbons synthesized from bioresources (50–100 F cm^{−3}, 1–3 Wh L^{−1} using 10 mg cm^{−2}) and contribute to the scalable design of sustainable electrodes with minimal ‘dead volume’ for efficient supercapacitors.

Type: Article
Title: High-Density Lignin-Derived Carbon Nanofiber Supercapacitors with Enhanced Volumetric Energy Density
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1002/advs.202100016
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1002/advs.202100016
Language: English
Additional information: © 2021 The Authors. Advanced Science published by Wiley-VCH GmbH. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Keywords: densification, electrodes, electrospinning, free-standing, lignin, microstructure, carbon nanofiber supercapacitors, volumetric capacitance
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Chemical Engineering
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10129119
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