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Hypothermia is not therapeutic in a neonatal piglet model of inflammation-sensitized hypoxia-ischemia

Martinello, KA; Meehan, C; Avdic-Belltheus, A; Lingam, I; Mutshiya, T; Yang, Q; Akin, MA; ... Robertson, NJ; + view all (2021) Hypothermia is not therapeutic in a neonatal piglet model of inflammation-sensitized hypoxia-ischemia. Pediatric Research 10.1038/s41390-021-01584-6. (In press). Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Perinatal inflammation combined with hypoxia-ischemia (HI) exacerbates injury in the developing brain. Therapeutic hypothermia (HT) is standard care for neonatal encephalopathy; however, its benefit in inflammation-sensitized HI (IS-HI) is unknown. METHODS: Twelve newborn piglets received a 2 µg/kg bolus and 1 µg/kg/h infusion over 52 h of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS). HI was induced 4 h after LPS bolus. After HI, piglets were randomized to HT (33.5 °C 1-25 h after HI, n = 6) or normothermia (NT, n = 6). Amplitude-integrated electroencephalogram (aEEG) was recorded and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) was acquired at 24 and 48 h. At 48 h, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL)-positive brain cell death, microglial activation/proliferation, astrogliosis, and cleaved caspase-3 (CC3) were quantified. Hematology and plasma cytokines were serially measured. RESULTS: Two HT piglets died. aEEG recovery, thalamic and white matter MRS lactate/N-acetylaspartate, and TUNEL-positive cell death were similar between groups. HT increased microglial activation in the caudate, but had no other effect on glial activation/proliferation. HT reduced CC3 overall. HT suppressed platelet count and attenuated leukocytosis. Cytokine profile was unchanged by HT. CONCLUSIONS: We did not observe protection with HT in this piglet IS-HI model based on aEEG, MRS, and immunohistochemistry. Immunosuppressive effects of HT and countering neuroinflammation by LPS may contribute to the observed lack of HT efficacy. Other immunomodulatory strategies may be more effective in IS-HI. IMPACT: Acute infection/inflammation is known to exacerbate perinatal brain injury and can worsen the outcomes in neonatal encephalopathy. Therapeutic HT is the current standard of care for all infants with NE, but the benefit in infants with coinfection/inflammation is unknown. In a piglet model of inflammation (LPS)-sensitized HI, we observed no evidence of neuroprotection with cooling for 24 h, based on our primary outcome measures: aEEG, MRS Lac/NAA, and histological brain cell death. Additional neuroprotective agents, with beneficial immunomodulatory effects, require exploration in IS-HI models.

Type: Article
Title: Hypothermia is not therapeutic in a neonatal piglet model of inflammation-sensitized hypoxia-ischemia
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1038/s41390-021-01584-6
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41390-021-01584-6
Language: English
Additional information: Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Brain Repair and Rehabilitation
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL EGA Institute for Womens Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL EGA Institute for Womens Health > Maternal and Fetal Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL EGA Institute for Womens Health > Neonatology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL EGA Institute for Womens Health > Womens Cancer
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > UCL BEAMS > Faculty of Engineering Science > Dept of Med Phys and Biomedical Eng
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10128958
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