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Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) on the Global Market: What Are the Implications for Products' Quality?

Kum, KY; Kirchhof, R; Luick, R; Heinrich, M; (2021) Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) on the Global Market: What Are the Implications for Products' Quality? Frontiers in Pharmacology , 12 , Article 621169. 10.3389/fphar.2021.621169. Green open access

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Abstract

Background: Danshen (Radix et rhizoma Salviae miltiorrhizae; Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge, Lamiaceae) is commonly used in Asia, including China, Japan, and Korea with markets in America and Europe growing substantially. It is included in multiple pharmacopeias and salvianolic acid B and tanshinone IIA are used as quality markers. However, on the markets, substitutes and different processing methods often are a concern. a concern regarding patients’ safety and expected outcomes. Aims: This study aims at understanding the quality of Danshen-derived products on the market, and the relationship between the chemistry, biological activity and the processing and storage methods. Methods: For heavy metal analysis, inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry was used. High performance thin-layer chromatography and proton nuclear magnetic resonance coupled with principal component analysis were used to understand the variation of metabolite composition. MTT assay and LPS induced NO production assay were used to evaluate the cytotoxicity effect and anti-inflammatory activity, respectively. Result and Discussion: Six out of sixty samples exceed the limits of cadmium according to the Chinese or United States Pharmacopoeia. Arsenic, lead and copper contents are all below pharmacopoeial thresholds. With more complex processing procedure, the risk of heavy metal contamination increases, especially with arsenic and cadmium. The metabolite compositions show a variability linked to processing and storage methods. Authenticated samples and Vietnamese primary samples contain higher salvianolic acid B, and their chemical compositions are more consistent compared to Chinese online store samples. Overall, a significant chemical variation can be observed in Danshen products directly linked to processing and storage method. In the MTT assay, fourteen samples show cytotoxicity while seven samples increase the proliferation of RAW264.7. In the LPS induced NO production of RAW 264.7, only seven samples show significant inhibitory effects. Conclusion: This is the first interdisciplinary investigation focusing on understanding the current market and the quality of Danshen. The quality of Danshen products on the high street are inferior to the authenticated samples. The results of the bioassays selected is not useful to differentiate the quality and composition according to the current definition in the pharmacopoeias. Overall, this approach highlights the tremendous variability of the products linked to processing and the need for more systematic and stringent quality assurance.

Type: Article
Title: Danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza) on the Global Market: What Are the Implications for Products' Quality?
Location: Switzerland
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3389/fphar.2021.621169
Publisher version: http://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.621169
Language: English
Additional information: © 2021 Kum, Kirchhof, Luick and Heinrich. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.
Keywords: H-NMR, HPTLC, ICP-OES (coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer), MTT assay, danshen (Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge.), griess assay, metabolomics (OMICS), quality assessement
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > UCL School of Pharmacy
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > UCL School of Pharmacy > Pharma and Bio Chemistry
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10128260
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