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Nanomedicine-based technologies and novel biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer's disease: from current to future challenges

Cano, A; Turowski, P; Ettcheto, M; Duskey, JT; Tosi, G; Sánchez-López, E; García, ML; ... Boada, M; + view all (2021) Nanomedicine-based technologies and novel biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer's disease: from current to future challenges. Journal of Nanobiotechnology , 19 , Article 122. 10.1186/s12951-021-00864-x. Green open access

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Abstract

Increasing life expectancy has led to an aging population, which has consequently increased the prevalence of dementia. Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia worldwide, is estimated to make up 50–80% of all cases. AD cases are expected to reach 131 million by 2050, and this increasing prevalence will critically burden economies and health systems in the next decades. There is currently no treatment that can stop or reverse disease progression. In addition, the late diagnosis of AD constitutes a major obstacle to effective disease management. Therefore, improved diagnostic tools and new treatments for AD are urgently needed. In this review, we investigate and describe both well-established and recently discovered AD biomarkers that could potentially be used to detect AD at early stages and allow the monitoring of disease progression. Proteins such as NfL, MMPs, p-tau217, YKL-40, SNAP-25, VCAM-1, and Ng / BACE are some of the most promising biomarkers because of their successful use as diagnostic tools. In addition, we explore the most recent molecular strategies for an AD therapeutic approach and nanomedicine-based technologies, used to both target drugs to the brain and serve as devices for tracking disease progression diagnostic biomarkers. State-of-the-art nanoparticles, such as polymeric, lipid, and metal-based, are being widely investigated for their potential to improve the effectiveness of both conventional drugs and novel compounds for treating AD. The most recent studies on these nanodevices are deeply explained and discussed in this review.

Type: Article
Title: Nanomedicine-based technologies and novel biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of Alzheimer's disease: from current to future challenges
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1186/s12951-021-00864-x
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1186/s12951-021-00864-x
Language: English
Additional information: This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.
Keywords: Alzheimer’s disease, Biomarkers, Lipid nanoparticles, Metal nanoparticles, Nanotechnology, Polymeric nanoparticles
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > Institute of Ophthalmology
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10127256
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