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Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on serum vitamin D level among infants and toddlers: An interrupted time series analysis and before-and-after comparison

Wong, RS; Tung, KTS; So, HK; Wong, WHS; Wong, SY; Tsang, HW; Tung, JYL; ... Ip, P; + view all (2021) Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on serum vitamin D level among infants and toddlers: An interrupted time series analysis and before-and-after comparison. Nutrients , 13 (4) 10.3390/nu13041270. Green open access

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Abstract

Background: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the implementation of social distancing and home confinement measures may elevate the risk of vitamin D deficiency particularly for infants. This study aimed to quantify changes in vitamin D level among infants and toddlers in Hong Kong after the COVID-19 outbreak. Methods: We recruited 303 infants and toddlers aged 2–24 months by stratified random sampling from 1 June 2019 to November 30, 2020. Regression models were used to estimate the effect of time on infants’ serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) level overall and by age groups before and after the outbreak. Interrupted time series (ITS) analysis was performed to examine the sustained effect of COVID-19 on their serum 25(OH)D level. Results: The ITS results showed no immediate reduction in serum 25(OH)D level among infants, but a decreasing trend was observed in the subsequent months post-outbreak at a monthly decline rate of −6.32 nmol/L. When analyzed by age group, the magnitude of post-outbreak reduction in 25(OH)D was stronger among younger infants (aged 2–6 months). Conclusion: Guidelines and recommendations should be given to pregnant women and mothers to ensure sufficient vitamin D level in their infants during the COVID-19 period.

Type: Article
Title: Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on serum vitamin D level among infants and toddlers: An interrupted time series analysis and before-and-after comparison
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.3390/nu13041270
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13041270
Language: English
Additional information: This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited
Keywords: serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D; vitamin D; infants; COVID-19; interrupted time series
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > UCL School of Pharmacy
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Life Sciences > UCL School of Pharmacy > Practice and Policy
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10126785
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