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Patients with aortic stenosis exhibit early improved endothelial function following transcatheter aortic valve replacement: The eFAST study

Comella, A; Michail, M; Chan, J; Cameron, JD; Gooley, R; Mathur, A; Hughes, AD; (2021) Patients with aortic stenosis exhibit early improved endothelial function following transcatheter aortic valve replacement: The eFAST study. International Journal of Cardiology , 332 pp. 143-147. 10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.03.062. Green open access

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) exhibit systemic endothelial dysfunction, which can be associated with myocardial ischaemia in absence of obstructive coronary disease. Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) is used to treat severe AS in patients with high or prohibitive surgical risk. However, it remains unknown whether endothelial function recovers post-TAVR. We therefore sought to assess the early and late changes in flow-mediated dilation (FMD), a measure of endothelial function, following TAVR. METHODS: Patients undergoing TAVR for severe AS had ultrasound assessment of brachial endothelial-independent and -dependent FMD. Measurements were performed pre-TAVR, at early follow-up (<48 h post-TAVR) and late follow-up (4-6 weeks post-TAVR). RESULTS: 27 patients (mean age 82.0 ± 7.0; 33.3% female) were recruited; 37.0% had diabetes mellitus and 59.3% had hypertension. Brachial artery FMD increased from 4.2 ± 1.6% (pre-TAVR) to 9.7 ± 3.5% at early follow-up (p < 0.0001). At late follow-up, improvement compared with early follow-up was sustained (8.7 ± 1.9%, p = 0.27). Resting brachial arterial flow velocities decreased significantly at late follow-up (11.24 ± 5.16 vs. 7.73 ± 2.79 cm/s, p = 0.003). Concordantly, at late follow-up, there was decrease in resting wall shear stress (WSS; 14.8 ± 7.8 vs. 10.6 ± 4.8dyne/cm2, p = 0.01), peak WSS (73.1 ± 34.1 vs. 58.8 ± 27.8dyne/cm2, p = 0.03) and cumulative WSS (3543 ± 1852 vs. 2504 ± 1089dyne·s/cm2, p = 0.002). Additionally, a favourable inverse correlation between cumulative WSS and FMD was restored at late follow-up (r = -0.21 vs. r = 0.49). CONCLUSION: Endothelial function in patients with AS improves early post-TAVR and this improvement is sustained. This likely occurs as a result of improved arterial haemodynamics, leading to lower localised WSS and release of vasoactive mediators that may also alleviate myocardial ischaemia.

Type: Article
Title: Patients with aortic stenosis exhibit early improved endothelial function following transcatheter aortic valve replacement: The eFAST study
Location: Netherlands
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.03.062
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijcard.2021.03.062
Language: English
Additional information: This version is the author accepted manuscript. For information on re-use, please refer to the publisher’s terms and conditions.
Keywords: Aortic stenosis, Endothelial dysfunction, Flow mediated dilatation, Transcatheter aortic valve replacement
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > Institute of Cardiovascular Science > Population Science and Experimental Medicine
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10126490
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