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Effects of dapagliflozin on mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease: a pre-specified analysis from the DAPA-CKD randomized controlled trial

Heerspink, HJL; Sjöström, CD; Jongs, N; Chertow, GM; Kosiborod, M; Hou, FF; McMurray, JJV; ... DAPA-CKD Trial Committees and Investigators; + view all (2021) Effects of dapagliflozin on mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease: a pre-specified analysis from the DAPA-CKD randomized controlled trial. European Heart Journal , 42 (13) pp. 1216-1227. 10.1093/eurheartj/ehab094. Green open access

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Abstract

AIMS : Mortality rates from chronic kidney disease (CKD) have increased in the last decade. In this pre-specified analysis of the DAPA-CKD trial, we determined the effects of dapagliflozin on cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular causes of death. METHODS AND RESULTS : DAPA-CKD was an international, randomized, placebo-controlled trial with a median of 2.4 years of follow-up. Eligible participants were adult patients with CKD, defined as a urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) 200-5000 mg/g and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) 25-75 mL/min/1.73 m2. All-cause mortality was a key secondary endpoint. Cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular death was adjudicated by an independent clinical events committee. The DAPA-CKD trial randomized participants to dapagliflozin 10 mg/day (n = 2152) or placebo (n = 2152). The mean age was 62 years, 33% were women, the mean eGFR was 43.1 mL/min/1.73 m2, and the median UACR was 949 mg/g. During follow-up, 247 (5.7%) patients died, of whom 91 (36.8%) died due to cardiovascular causes, 102 (41.3%) due to non-cardiovascular causes, and in 54 (21.9%) patients, the cause of death was undetermined. The relative risk reduction for all-cause mortality with dapagliflozin (31%, hazard ratio [HR] [95% confidence interval (CI)] 0.69 [0.53, 0.88]; P = 0.003) was consistent across pre-specified subgroups. The effect on all-cause mortality was driven largely by a 46% relative risk reduction of non-cardiovascular death (HR [95% CI] 0.54 [0.36, 0.82]). Deaths due to infections and malignancies were the most frequently occurring causes of non-cardiovascular deaths and were reduced with dapagliflozin vs. placebo. CONCLUSION : In patients with CKD, dapagliflozin prolonged survival irrespective of baseline patient characteristics. The benefits were driven largely by reductions in non-cardiovascular death.

Type: Article
Title: Effects of dapagliflozin on mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease: a pre-specified analysis from the DAPA-CKD randomized controlled trial
Location: England
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1093/eurheartj/ehab094
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurheartj/ehab094
Language: English
Additional information: © The Author(s) 2021. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com
Keywords: kidney failure, chronic cancer, cardiovascular system, cause of death, infections, mortality, dapagliflozin
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Medical Sciences > Div of Medicine > Renal Medicine
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10126060
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