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Mycophenolate Mofetil Versus Cyclophosphamide for Remission Induction in Childhood Polyarteritis Nodosa: An Open-Label, Randomized, Bayesian Noninferiority Trial

Brogan, PA; Arch, B; Hickey, H; Anton, J; Iglesias, E; Baildam, E; Mahmood, K; ... Eleftheriou, D; + view all (2021) Mycophenolate Mofetil Versus Cyclophosphamide for Remission Induction in Childhood Polyarteritis Nodosa: An Open-Label, Randomized, Bayesian Noninferiority Trial. Arthritis & Rheumatology , 73 (9) pp. 1673-1682. 10.1002/art.41730. Green open access

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Cyclophosphamide (CYC) is used in clinical practice off-label for induction of remission of childhood polyarteritis nodosa (cPAN). Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) might offer a less toxic alternative: we explored their relative effectiveness in a randomised controlled trial (RCT). METHODS: International, open-label, Bayesian, RCT investigating the relative effectiveness of MMF and CYC for remission induction in cPAN. Eleven newly-diagnosed patients were randomised (1:1) to MMF or intravenous-CYC; all received the same glucocorticoid regimen. The primary endpoint was remission within 6-months whilst compliant with glucocorticoid taper. Bayesian distributions for remission rates were established a priori for MMF and CYC by experienced clinicians, and updated to posterior distributions on trial completion. RESULTS: Baseline disease activity/features were similar between groups. The primary remission endpoint occurred in 4/6 patients (67%) in the MMF group and 4/5 patients (80%) in the CYC group. Time to remission was shorter in the MMF group (median 7.4 weeks versus 17.5 weeks for CYC). No relapses occurred in either group within 18-months. Two serious infections were probably related to MMF. Physical and psychosocial quality-of-life scores were superior in the MMF group compared to CYC at 6-and 18-months. Combining the prior expert opinion with results from MYPAN provided posterior estimates of remission of 71% (90% CrI 51-83%) for MMF; and 75% (90% CrI 57-86%) for CYC. CONCLUSION: Taking the prior opinion and the study results together, rates of remission induction in cPAN on MMF and CYC are similar, and MMF might be associated with better health-related quality of life than CYC.

Type: Article
Title: Mycophenolate Mofetil Versus Cyclophosphamide for Remission Induction in Childhood Polyarteritis Nodosa: An Open-Label, Randomized, Bayesian Noninferiority Trial
Location: United States
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1002/art.41730
Publisher version: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/art.41730
Language: English
Additional information: Copyright © 2021 The Authors. Arthritis & Rheumatology published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American College of Rheumatology. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Keywords: Bayesian, Child, Cyclophosphamide, Mycophenolate mofetil, Polyarteritis nodosa, Randomised controlled trial
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Population Health Sciences > UCL GOS Institute of Child Health > Infection, Immunity and Inflammation Dept
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10125340
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