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The aetiologies of epilepsy

Balestrini, S; Arzimanoglou, A; Blümcke, I; Scheffer, IE; Wiebe, S; Zelano, J; Walker, MC; (2021) The aetiologies of epilepsy. Epileptic Disorders , 23 (1) pp. 1-16. 10.1684/epd.2021.1255. Green open access

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Abstract

The identification of the aetiology of a patient's epilepsy is instrumental in the diagnosis, prognostic counselling and management of the epilepsies. Indeed, the aetiology can be important for determining the recurrence risk of single seizures and so for making a diagnosis of epilepsy. Here, we divide the aetiologies into six categories: structural, genetic, infectious, metabolic, immune (all of which are part of the International League Against Epilepsy [ILAE] classification system) and neurodegenerative (which we have considered separately because of its growing importance in epilepsy). These are not mutually exclusive categories and many aetiologies fall into more than one category. Indeed, genetic factors probably play a role, to varying degrees, in the risk of seizures in all people with epilepsy. In each of the categories, we discuss what we regard as the most important aetiologies; importance being determined not only by prevalence but also by clinical significance. The introduction contains information suitable for level 1 competency (entry level), whilst the subsequent sections contain information aimed at level 2 competency (proficiency level) as part of the new ILAE competency-based curriculum. As we move towards precision medicine and targeted therapies, so aetiologies will play an even greater role in the management of epilepsy.

Type: Article
Title: The aetiologies of epilepsy
Location: France
Open access status: An open access version is available from UCL Discovery
DOI: 10.1684/epd.2021.1255
Publisher version: https://doi.org/10.1684/epd.2021.1255
Language: English
Additional information: This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/
Keywords: Genetic, immune, infectious, metabolic, neurodegenerative, structural
UCL classification: UCL
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology
UCL > Provost and Vice Provost Offices > School of Life and Medical Sciences > Faculty of Brain Sciences > UCL Queen Square Institute of Neurology > Clinical and Experimental Epilepsy
URI: https://discovery.ucl.ac.uk/id/eprint/10124904
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